of Mosciska to the S. edge of the Wielki Bloto. This army comprised the Beskiden Corps, the Austro-Hungarian IV., XIX., XVIII. and V. Corps—14 divs. and I Landsturm Hussar brigade.
The Russian front was held by the III. Army from the Vistula to the upper Lubaczówka S. of Zapalów, and by the VII. Army thence to the Wielki Bloto. In all there were 41 inf. and 6 cav. divs. and 9 Reichwehr brigades of which, however, on June 14 two divisions of the XXI. Corps had been transferred to the W. flank of their XI. Army for the counter-offensive against Szurmay.
The general attack by all three armies began on the 13th. That of the IV. Army opened at 5:40 a.m. on the 12th with a powerful artillery preparation against the Russian positions at Sieniawa. In the course of the day Lt.-Gen. Behr's combined corps on the N. wing of the XI. Army succeeded in passing the Lubaczówka, and the Austrian 26th Landwehr Inf. Div. crossed the San at Ubieszyn and Lezachów, S. of Sieniawa, and finally got possession of the last-named place, which was held despite Russian counter-attacks.
At dawn on the 13th the XVII. Corps stormed the strong points of the hostile line at Sieniawa and Jukowa Gora, E. of it. These strong points were technically strengthened. Units of the IX. Corps had meanwhile passed to the E. bank of the San, including the whole of the 10th Div., which came into action in support of the XVII. Corps. On the same day Mackensen and Böhm opened the main attack. The Austro-Hungarian VI. Corps succeeded in pressing forward to Malastów, and to the N. of this the Guard advanced victoriously on Krakowiec. On the other hand, the II. Army at first made little headway until in the night of the 14th the successes of the XI. Army on the previous day began to have an effect. As early as the evening of the 13th the Russians began their retreat, which on the morning of the 14th became general. On this day the XVII. Corps of the IV. Army pushed forward on Cewków and the IX. on Tarnogrod, the northerly advance of the latter being intended to facilitate the advance of the adjoining X. Corps over the San. The objectives of the XI. Army were, to the E., the line Sakny–Krakowiec, and to the N., in conjunction with the IV. Army, the area S. of Lubaczów. The II. Army was to advance beyond Mosciska. By the evening of the I4th the Russians had fallen back behind that town to a new defensive line which they had prepared on the heights W. of Sadowa Wisznia, at Krakowiec and Oleszyce. This line, however, also fell on the 15th. On the previous day the VI. Corps had for the second time succeeded in breaking through the Russian front at Krakowiec, and on the following day the German XXII. Corps did the same in the Niemirow direction, and the German X. Corps in that of Oleszyce and Lubaczów. On the IV. Army front the IX. Corps captured the point d'appui of Pioskorowice, while the XVII. Corps exploited its success at Sieniawa. The Russian resistance also gave way in front of Böhm's army, which on the 15th had stormed the Russian stronghold W. of Sadowa Wisznia.
On the evening of the 15th and on the 16th, the Russians were in retreat along the whole front. They had once more been beaten decisively in the battles of Przemysl, Mosciska, and the Lubaczówka, and were now in full flight towards Lemberg. There existed now between the victorious Austro-Germans and the capital of Galicia only a single line of defence on the Grodek and Janow marshes of the Wereszyca, on which the 1914 battles of Lemberg and Rawa Ruska had been fought, and on this line the Russians once more attempted to make a stand.
Their losses since the commencement of the spring campaign in Galicia had already amounted to no less than 971 officers and 391,000 men captured, with 304 guns, 763 machine-guns, and vast quantities of other material. (E. J.)
Duncan, Sara Jeannette, Mrs. Everard Cotes (1861–), British-Canadian author, was born at Brantford, Can., in 1861, the daughter of Charles Duncan, merchant, and married Everard Cotes, Anglo-Indian journalist, late managing-director of the Eastern News Agency, in 1890. She began her literary work as a journalist in connexion with the Washington Post and afterwards the Toronto Globe and Montreal Star, contributing to the latter letters from Japan and the East, afterwards republished as A Social Departure (1890). During her long residence with her husband in India she made a considerable reputation as a novelist of Anglo-Indian life, notably in His Honour and a Lady (1896); Set in Authority (1906); The Burnt Offering (1909) and The Pool in the Desert, a volume of short stories (1903). Her lighter work includes A Voyage of Consolation (1898); Those Delightful Americans (1902) and His Royal Happiness (1915), dramatized and produced in London March 1919. She also wrote The Imperialist (1904), a Canadian novel.
Dunsany, Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, 18th Baron (1878–), Irish author, was born in London July 24 1878 and educated at Eton and Sandhurst. He entered the army, holding a commission in the 1st batt. Coldstream Guards, and served in the South African War. He was transferred to the Reserve Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and was wounded in the World War, April 25 1916. He unsuccessfully contested W. Wilts. in the Conservative interest in 1906.
Amongst his prose works may be mentioned The Gods of Pegana (1905); Time and the Gods (1906); The Sword of Welleran (1908); A Dreamer's Tales (1910); Tales of War (1918); Unhappy Far-off Things (1919); Tales of Three Hemispheres (1920). His plays include The Glittering Gate (1909); King Argimenes (191); The Gods of the Mountain (1911); The Golden Doom (1912) ; A Night at an Inn (1916) and If (1921).
Dupuis, Jean (1828–1912), French traveller, was born at Saint-Just-la-Pendue, near Raonne, France, Dec. 7 1828, and was educated at Tarare (dept. Rhone). In 1858 he went to Egypt as a trader, and from thence to China. His trading journeys took him into many previously unexplored parts of southern China, and in 1871–2 his efforts opened up the Song-koi or Red river to commerce. The foundations of the French possessions in Tongking were thereby laid and Dupuis did much to assist in the conquest of the country (see 27.6 seq.). His explorations are described in the following works: L'ouverture du fleuve Rouge au commerce (1879); Les origines de la question du Tong-kin (1896); Le Tong-kin et l'intervention française (1898) and Le Tong-kin de 1872 à 1886 (1910). Dupuis was in 1881 awarded the Delalande Guérineau prize by the Academy of Sciences in Paris. He died at Monaco Nov. 28 1912.
Durban, Natal, S. Africa (see 8.696). Pop. (1911) 34,880 whites and 53,118 natives, Asiatic and coloured. In 1918 the whites numbered 41,865 (with suburbs 48,413), natives (estimated) 26,000 Asiatics; and other coloured persons, 23,750; total 91,615. Durban's importance and prosperity depends upon its port (Port Natal), but since 1910 it has become a manufacturing place of some note. It is the most compact of the larger S. African towns, the borough covering only 12 square miles.
Chief among modern buildings are the new Town Hall (opened 1910) and the Law Courts. The latter face the Victoria Embankment, a fine thoroughfare along Bay Beach, i.e. the Bay of Natal. At the Point, overlooking the eastern entrance to the harbour, an equestrian statue of Dick King, commemorative of his great ride to seek help for the infant settlement, was erected in 1915. From Ocean Beach a semi-circular pier, over 900 ft. long, encloses a bathing place free from sharks. Ocean Beach, with its esplanade and park and fine hotels, forms the chief attraction during the Durban winter season (May to Sept.) when the mean maximum temperature is 76° F. For horse-racing fixtures Durban ranks only second to Johannesburg among the cities of South Africa.
Vessels are constantly engaged in dredging the bar at the entrance to the harbour; the lowest depth of water at the entrance is 36 ft., the minimum depth at the quayside varies from 22 to 30 ft. The harbour is equipped with every facility for the rapid loading and unloading of ships. At Congella, at the N.E. end of the harbour, some 220 ac. of land had been reclaimed and 3,460 ft. of wharfage provided by 1920. Here timber and bulky goods are handled. Congella is also the centre for manufactures; it has cold-storage accommodation and does a large export trade. It was, however, the development of coaling facilities, made practicable by the nearness of the Natal coalfields, that placed Durban in 1913–4 above Cape Town as premier port of the Union. The coal bunkered at Durban, 1,196,000 tons in 1913, rose greatly during the war, but fell to 608,000 tons in 1918–9. In the same year, however, the export of coal rose to 704,000 tons compared with 261,000 in 1917–8. The rival to Durban for coal exports in South Africa is not Cape Town but Delagoa Bay, which exports the coal from the Transvaal mines. In 1918, in which year there was a great falling off in the number of ships visiting the port, the total tonnage of cargo landed, shipped and transhipped at Durban was 2,373,000—it had been 2,801,000 in 1916. In 1919 shipping increased, the total net tonnage entering the port being 2,959,000, of which 2,562,000 tons were British.
In 1910 a wireless station was opened at Durban; the first in South Africa. It has a normal range of 300 m. by day and 1,000 m. by night. In 1918—year ending July 31—the rateable valuation of Durban was £12,378,000, the revenue £1,095,000 and indebtedness £3,135,000. In that year the net profit on municipal trading was £110,000; in 1920 the municipal valuation was £13,546,000.
Duveneck, Frank (1848–1919), American painter (see 8.737), died in Cincinnati Jan. 3 1919. He was awarded a special gold medal at the San Francisco Exposition in 1915, and the same year he presented to the Cincinnati museum a large collection of his own works.
Dyeing (see 8.744). The changes which occurred in the practice of dyeing during the years 1900–21 were not numerous