Page:Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition, v. 4.djvu/28

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was summoned and formally installed at Chuquisaca on the 25th May 1826, to take into consideration the consti tution prepared by Bolivar for the new republic. A favourable report vras made to that body by a committee appointed to examine it, on which it was approved by the congress, and declared to be the constitution of the republic : and as such, it was sworn to by the people. General Sucre was chosen president for life, according to the con stitution, but only accepted the appointment for the space of two years, and on the express condition that 2000 Colombian troops should be permitted to remain with him.

The independence of the country, so dearly bought, did not, however, secure for it a peaceful future. Repeated risings occurred, till in the end of 1827 General Sucre and his Colombian troops were driven from La Paz. A new congress was formed at Chuquisaca in April 1828, which modified the constitution given by Bolivar, and chose Marshal Santa Cruz for president ; but only a year later a revolution, led by General Blanco, threw the country into disorder and for a time overturned the Government. Quiet being again restored in 1831, Santa Cruz promulgated the code of laws which bore his name, and brought the finan cial affairs of the country into some order ; he also con cluded a treaty of commerce with Peru, and for several years Bolivia remained in peace. In 1835, when a struggle for the chief power had made two factions in the neigh bouring republic of Peru, Santa Cruz was induced to take a part in the contest ; he marched into that country, and after defeating General Gamarra, the leader of one of the opposing parties, completed the pacification of Peru in the spring of 1836, named himself its protector, and had in view a confederation of the two countries. At this juncture the Government of Chili interfered actively, and espousing the cause of Gamarra, sent troops into Peru. Three years of fighting ensued, till in a battle at Jungay in June 1839 Santa Cruz was defeated and exiled, Gamarra became pre sident of Peru, and General Velasco provisional chief in Bolivia. The Santa Cruz party, however, remained strong in Bolivia, and soon revolted successfully against the new head of the Government, ultimately installing General Ballivian in the chief power. Taking advantage of the disturbed condition of Bolivia, Gamarra made an attempt to annex the rich province, of La Paz, invading it in August 1841 and besieging the capital; but in a battle with Bal livian his army was totally routed, and Gamarra himself was killed. The Bolivian general was now in turn to in vade Peru, when Chili again interfered to prevent him. Ballivian remained in the presidency till 1848, when he retired to Valparaiso, and in the end of that year General Belzu, after leading a successful military revolution, took the chief power, and during his presidency endeavoured to promote agriculture, industry, and trade. General Jorge Cordova succeeded him, but had not been long in office when a new revolt in September 1857, originating with the garrison of Oruro, spread over the land, and compelled him to quit the country. His place was taken by Dr Josd Maria Linares, the originator of the revolution, who taking into his own hands all the powers of Government, and act ing with the greatest severity, caused himself to be pro claimed dictator in March 1858. Fresh disturbances led to the deposition of Linares in 1861, when Dr Maria de Acha was chosen president. In 1862 a treaty of peace and commerce with the United States of North America was ratified, and in the following year a similar treaty was concluded with Belgium ; but new causes of disagreement with Chili had arisen in the discovery of rich beds of guano on the eastern coast-land of the desert of Atacama, which threatened warfare, and were only set at rest by the treaty of August 1866, in which the 24th parallel of latitude was adopted as the boundary between the tvo republics. A new military revolution, led by Maria Mel- garejo, broke out in 1865, and in February of that year the troops of President Acha were defeated in a battle near Potosi, when Melgarejo took the dominion of the country. After defeating two revolutions, in 1865 and 1866, the new president declared a political amnesty, and in 1869, after imposing a revised constitution on the country, he became its dictator till 1871.

Such, in brief, are the rapidly succeeding political changes and internal conflicts which have kept Bolivia far behind its neighbouring republics, and have prevented the de velopment of its natural wealth. Notwithstandingthese wars and revolutions which rent the country, Bolivia had main tained itself without foreign credit until the presidency of Melgarejo, when it was drawn into disastrous speculations arid contracts which have compromised its credit and loaded the country with a heavy foreign debt.

President Morales was elected in 1871 ; since that time a civilian Government has succeeded to the military sys tem, and attempts are being made to reform the disordered affairs of the republic.

(n. j.)

BOLLANDIST FATHERS, The, the authors of the famous Ada Sanctorum. During the Roman Catholic revival in the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries a great number of martyrologies were published, and it occurred to a Jesuit father, Heribert Rosweyd, to collect all the various legends about the martyrs and saints of the church into one great standard martyrology, which he proposed should fill 1 8 vols. folio. Rosweyd die d in 1 629 without having been able to carry out his plan. His idea however, was taken up by John Bolland, a Jesuit father of the Low Countries, who had settled in Antwerp. He began an extensive correspondence, writing to every one throughout Europe who he supposed was able to help him The public libraries and the libraries of convents and churches were thoroughly examined for MSS. about saints and martyrs, and so much material was found that the original plan of the work was soon widened. The ground- plan of the undertaking was to form a huge calendar, giving the life and deeds of each saint under the heading of the day set apart by the church for his honour. In 1643 the first two volumes were published, containing the saints days in January. Bolland died soon after the beginning of his labour, but not until he had seen the work fairly started ; other deaths followed, but the work was prosecuted in accordance with the original plan, and went on pros perously until 1773, when the troubles which then overtook the Jesuits affected the Bollandists also. The little com pany struggled on, however, amid many difficulties until 1794, when they were dispersed ; and the whole of the MS. collections were destroyed during the French invasion of the Netherlands. At this time 54 vols. had been pub lished, bringing the work down to the 15th of October.