Page:Folk-lore - A Quarterly Review. Volume 16, 1905.djvu/173

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Its Structure and Development. 147

emblems to strengthen the whole. No doubt the meaning of this charm would vary with the exact nature of the object held in the fist, but inasmuch as the execution of this part of the cimaruta is very defective, we can gain no satisfactory knowledge of what the prototypes may have been.

I have never been able to unhesitatingly recognize the fish in combination with the rue-sprig, although it is well known as a separate amulet. I cannot therefore include it in our list of symbols, for although Mr. El worthy {Evil Eye, p. 355) mentions it, he does not give an illustration of it. Horns as amulets contro al fascino (Jorio) are of so great an antiquity and so widely distributed that it would be a matter for surprise that they have not been invariably added to strengthen the collection of cimaruta emblems, were it not that for a long period the elements in the combination were chosen simply for their efficacy in matters relating to childbirth, and that the moon-goddess in this capacity was sufficiently represented by the crescent.

7. Cock.

Occasionally in cimarute of elaborate design one or two birds are added to the other emblems ; one is usually represented in profile and sometimes with a flower in its beak, the other is represented as seen from above and with wings expanded as if in full flight. The former bird is clearly distinguished as a cock by his comb, the latter has been identified as an eagle, but I would submit that it is intended for a cock volant. It is certainly not an owl (Figs. 22, 2 5 A, 46).

Three separate theories may account for their presence. Both cock and eagle can be considered as able to overpower the evil eye by the power of their own eyes ; the one is noted for its extreme vigilance, the other for its piercing sight. The explanation which has been given of the flower in the beak