Page:Folk-lore - A Quarterly Review. Volume 26, 1915.djvu/429

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Collectanea. 4 1 5

Fig. 41. A small heart-shaped pendant, formed of a metal frame enclosing a representation of a four-leaved clover between two pieces of green glass ; Madrid. This object, which is one of a large class of small and cheap amuletic objects sold all over the Continent, has, if worn, I was told by an old woman whose business was partly the selling of various truly Spanish amuletic objects, " merit" as a protective object. It is interesting to com- pare the form of the quatrefoil here with that of the four-petalled emblem, referred to above, found commonly on certain Spanish types of crescents and jet compound " fig " hands.

Fig. 42. A small pig, of silvered bronze ; Madrid. Worn to secure good luck.

Ainulets efubracitig Religious Conceptions. — Fig. 43. A cake of " Agnus Dei," ^ in a pendant reliquary of silver and glass ; Madrid. The cake is of Pope Urban VIII. (1623-44). Two fragments of bone, relics, have been inserted within the body of the wax, forming an unusual feature in amulets of this kind.^

In the second series of these notes I have illustrated and described (vol. xxiv., Plate II., Fig. 37, and pp. 72, 73, supra) a kind of amulet formed of a thin, bowl-shaped, bronze or copper medal or coin, in a silver mounting, with an eyelet at each end to enable it to be tied upon a patient. I have since seen several examples of these objects in fairly good condition. On some of them are two human figures, with a cross in the background, on the concave face, while the convex face is smooth ; these seem to be copies of a late Byzantine coin, prepared to be used as a remedy. In the department of Numismatics, at the National Museum at Madrid, are some Byzantine coins (with figures on both sides), similarly cupped and mounted (at about the same date as the medals) for employment as amulets. An informant at Toledo told me, in 1915, that such objects are known as "Medals

^ For notes on the history, distributing, symbolism, and protective uses of Agnus Dei, cf. The Catholic Encyclopaedia, vol. i., s.v. "Agnus Dei,'" Rodriguez Lopez, op. cit., pp. 248, 249, and Bellucci, // Feticismo Primitivo in Italia, Perugia, 1907, pp. 121 sqq.

^ There are Agnus Dei made from wax mi.\ed with dust believed to be that of the bones of martyrs, which are of a grey colour, and are treated as relics. Catliolic Enc, loc. cit.