Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/422

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1 S 23 (thorough) knowledge; בַּטֻּחוֹת Jb 126 and מִבְטַחִים Is 3218 (full) confidence; בְּרָכוֹת (abundant) blessing, ψ 217; גְּבוּרוֹת (exceptional) strength, Jb 414; הַוּוֹת ψ 510 (very) wickedness; חֲמוּדוֹת Dn 923 (greatly) beloved; חֵמוֹת ψ 7611, &c.(fierce) wrath; חֲרָפוֹת Dn 122 (utter) contempt; יְשֻׁעוֹת (real) help, Is 2618, &c.; מַרְאֹת Gn 462 (an important) vision; מֵֽישָׁרִים uprightness; תַּהְפֻּכוֹת perversity; נְקָמוֹת (complete) vengeance, Ju 1136, &c.; חֲשֵׁכִים and מַֽחֲשַׁכִּים (thick) darkness; מִסְתָּרִים a (close) hiding-place; נְגִידִים nobility; שְׁמָנִים Is 281 fatness; צַחְצָחוֹת (complete) aridity; מַמְתַּקִּים sweetness; מַֽחֲמַדִּים preciousness; שַֽׁעֲשֻׁעִים delight; עֲדָנִים and תַּֽעֲנֻגִים pleasure; רַֽחֲמִים compassion; מְנוּחֹת ψ 232 rest, refreshment; מְהוּמֹת Am 39 tumult. Probably also יְדִידֹת (heartfelt) love, ψ 451; מְרֹרוֹת (extreme) bitterness, Jb 1326; מִרְמוֹת (base) deceit, ψ 3813; צְדָקוֹת (true) righteousness, Is 3315, &c.; שְׁמָחוֹת (the highest) joy, ψ 1611. On the other hand, חָכְמוֹת wisdom (Pr 120, &c.) can hardly be a plural (=the essence of wisdom, or wisdom personified), but is a singular (see §86l).

A further extension of this plural of amplification occurs according to P. Haupt’s very probable suggestion (SBOT. Proverbs, p. 40, line 50, &c.) in יְאֹרִים the great river (of the Nile, generally יְאֹר) Is 718, 196 (though with the predicate in the plural), Ez 3012, ψ 7844, but in Is 3725, Ez 293 the usual explanation, arms or channels of the Nile, can hardly be avoided; also in נְהָרוֹת ψ 242 of the ocean, which encircles the earth, 137:1 of the great river, i.e. the Euphrates, but in Is 181 נַֽהֲרֵי כוּשׁ is evidently a numerical plural.—In Pr 1613 מְלָכִים (acc. to P. Haupt=the great king) is very doubtful. In נְשִׂיאֵי Ez 191 the second yôdh is evidently due to dittography, since ישְׂרָאֵל follows.

 [124f]  The summing up of the several parts of an action is expressed in חֲנֻמִים embalming, כִּפֻּרִים atonement, מִלֻּאִים (prop. filling, sc. of the hand) ordination to the priesthood, שִׁלֻּחִים dismissal, שִׁלֻּמִים retribution, פִּתֻּחִים engraving (of a seal, &c.); אֳהָבִים fornication, זְנוּנִים whoredom, נִֽאֻפִים adultery; נִֽחֻמִים (prop. no doubt, warm compassion) consolation, תַּֽחֲנוּנים supplication, נְדֻדִים Jb 74 (restless) tossing to and fro, פְּלָאִים wonder La 19, עלֵלוֹת gleaning; perhaps also נְגִינִוֹת ψ 41, 61, &c., if it means the playing on stringed instruments, and שַׁלְמֹנִים Is 123 bribery, unless it be a plural of number.[1]

 [124g]  Of (c): the pluralis excellentiae or maiestatis, as has been remarked above, is properly a variety of the abstract plural, since it sums up the several characteristics[2] belonging to the idea, besides possessing the secondary sense of an intensification of the original idea. It is thus closely related to the plurals of amplification, treated under e, which are mostly found in poetry.

  1. Mayer Lambert in REJ. xxiv. 106 ff., enumerates no less than ninety-five words ending in îm, which in his opinion are to be regarded as pluralia tantum.
  2. The Jewish grammarians call such plurals רִבּוּי הַכֹּחוֹת plur. virium or virtutum; later grammarians call them plur. excellentiae, magnitudinis, or plur. maiestaticus. This last name may have been suggested by the we used by kings when speaking of themselves (cf. already 1 Macc. 1019, 1131); and the plural used by God in Gn 126, 117, Is 68 has been incorrectly explained in this way. It is, however, either communicative (including the attendant angels; so at all events in Is 68, cf. also Gn 322), or according to others, an indication of the fullness of power and might implied in אֱלֹהִים (see Dillmann on Gn 126); but it is best explained as a plural of self-deliberation. The use of the plural as a form of respectful address is quite foreign to Hebrew.