Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/172

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Is 196 (see above, g) is a mere error of the scribe, who had the Aramaic form in mind and corrected it by prefixing ה.

 [53q]  7. In the imperfect and participle the characteristic ה is regularly elided after the preformatives, thus יַקְמִיל, מַקְמִיל; but it is retained in the infinitive after prepositions, e.g. לְהַקְמִיל. The exceptions are in the imperfect, יְהוֹשִׁיעַ He will save for יוֹשִׁיעַ 1 S 1747, ψ 1166 (in pause); יְהוֹדֶה He will praise for יוֹדֶה Neh 1117, ψ 287, 4518 (cf. the proper name יְהוּכַל Jer 373, for which 381 יוּכַל [and יְהוֹסֵף ψ 816); [יְהֵילִילוּ (§70d) Is 525, יְהָתֵ֫לּוּ Jer 94, תְּהָתֵ֫לּוּ Jb 139] and מְהֻקְצָעוֹת Ez 4622; in the infinitive (where, however, as in Niphʿal, §51l, the infinitive Qal is generally to be read) לַסְתִּר Is 2915 for לְהַסְתִּיר; לַנְפִּל and לַצְבּוֹת Nu 522; לַֽעֲבִיר 2 S 1919; לַֽהֲלִק Jer 3712; לַֽחֲטִיא Ec 55; לַלְבֵּן (doubly anomalous for לְהַלְבִּין) Dn 1135; לַשְׁמִעַ ψ 267; לַֽאֲדִיב 1 S 233; לַשְׁמִד Is 2311; וְלַשְׁבִּית Am 84 (certainly corrupt); בָּעִיר for בְּהָעִיר ψ 7320 (but in the city is probably meant); לָבִיא Jer 397 (2 Ch 3110); לַמְרוֹת Is 38, ψ 7817; לַנְחוֹתָם Ex 1321; כַּנְּלוֹת (see, however, §20h) Is 331; לַרְאֹֽתְכֶם Dt 133: cf. further, from verbs ל״ה, Nu 522, Jer 2720; on Dt 2612 and Neh 1039, see above, k; for לַמְחוֹת Pr 313 read לְמֹחוֹת or לִמְמַחוֹת.

 [53r]  8. With regard to the tone it is to be observed that the afformatives וּ and ־ָה in Hiphʿîl have not the tone, even in the perfect with waw consecutive (except in Ex 2633 before ה, Lv 1529 before א, to avoid a hiatus); but the plural ending וּן (see §47m) always has the tone, e.g. תַּקִרִב֫וּן Dt 117.

 [53s]  9. The passive (Hophʿal) has ŭ instead of Qameṣ ḥaṭuph in the first syllable (הֻקְטַל), in the strong verb less frequently in the perfect and infinitive, but generally in the participle, through the influence of the initial מ‍ (but cf. מָשְׁחָת Pr 2526); e.g. הֻשְׁכַּב Ez 3232 (beside הָשְׁכְּבָה 3219); הֻשְׁלַךְ impf. יֻשְׁלַךְ, part. מֻשְׁלָךְ 2 S 2021 (beside הָשְׁלַכְתָּ Is 1419) הֻמְלַ֫חַתְּ Ez 164; in the partic. Hoph. without elision of the ה: מְהֻקְצָעוֹת Ez 4622; on the other hand, verbs פּ״ן always have ŭ (in a sharpened syllable): הֻגַּד, יֻגַּד (cf. §9n).

 [53t]  10. The infinitive absolute has in Hophʿal (as in Hiphʿîl) Ṣere in the last syllable, e.g. הָחְתֵּל and הָמְלֵחַ Ez 164; הֻגֵּד Jos 924. An infinitive construct does not occur in the strong verb.

11. With regard to the imperative Hophʿal, see above, §46a, note.

 [53u]  12. According to Böttcher (Ausführliches Lehrbuch, § 906) and Barth (see above, §52e) a number of supposed imperfects Hophʿal are, in fact, imperfects of the passive of Qal. As in the case of the perfects passive of Qal (see above, §52e) the question is again of verbs of which neither the corresponding causative (i.e. here the Hiphʿîl), nor the other tense of the same conjugation (i.e. here the perfect Hophʿal) is found; so with יֻקַּם (for יֻנְקַם, cf. yuqtălŭ as imperfect Qal in Arabic) and יֻתַּן, from נָקַם and נָתַן; יֻקַּח from לָקַח (cf. §66g); יוּאָר Nu 226 from אָרַר; יֻחַן from חָנַן; יוּשָּׁ֑ד Ho 1014 (cf. Is 331) from שָׁדַד; Barth adds the verbs פ״ן: תֻּתַּשׁ Ez 1912 from נתשׁ; יֻתָּץ Lev 1135 from נתץ; the verbs ע״ע: יֻחָ֫קוּ Jb 1923 from חקק; יֻכַּת &c. from כּתת; the verb ע״וּ: יוּדַשׁ from דּוּשׁ; the verbs ע״י: יוּחָ֫ל, יוּשַׁר, יוּשַׁת from חִיל, שִׁיר and שִׁית. On וַיִּ֫ישֶׂם &c., §73f. In point of fact it would be very strange, especially in the case of יֻתַּן and יֻקַּח, that of these frequently used verbs,