Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/322

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i.e. the command of*) according to; בִּגְלַל (in the concern of) on account of; לְמַ֫עַן (for the purpose of) on account of.

 [101c2. Substantives used adverbially very frequently become prepositions in this way, e.g. בְּלִי, בִּבְלִי, מִבְּלִי, בִּלְתִּי, בְּאֵין, בְּאֶ֫פֶס (with cessation) without, בְּעוֹד (in the duration of) during; בְּדֵי, כְּדֵי (according to the requirement of) for, according to.

§102. Prefixed Prepositions.

 [102a1. Of the words mentioned in § 101, מִן־ from, out of, frequently occurs as a prefix (§99c), with its Nûn assimilated to the following consonant (by means of Dageš forte), e.g. מִיַּ֫עַר out of a forest.

 [102b]  Rem. The separate מִן־ (always with a following Maqqeph) is usual (but not necessary, cf. Ju 2014 with verse 15, Ez 436, &c.) only before the article, e.g. מִן־הָאָ֫רֶץ, and sometimes occurs before the softer consonants, e.g. מִן־אָז Jer 4418, מִן־בְּנֵי Jo 112, 1 Ch 518; cf. Ex 1814, Lv 114, 1430, Ju 723, 1011, 1916, ψ 1047 (2 K 2336 before ר; also before ק in ψ 1849), and elsewhere in the later books (as in Aramaic)[1]; there is besides a poetic by-form מִנִּי (cf. §90m) and מִנֵּי Is 3011. Its form is most commonly מִ‍· with a following Dageš, which may, however, be omitted in letters which have Še (cf. §20m). With a following י the מִ‍ is, as a rule, contracted to מִי, e.g. מִידֵי=מִיְּדֵי or מִֽיְדֵי (but cf. מִיְּשֵׁנֵי Dn 122; מִיְּרֻשָּֽׁתְךָ 2 Ch 2011); before gutturals it becomes מֵ‍ (according to §22c), e.g. מֵֽאָדָם, מֵעָם; before ח the מִ‍ occurs with the guttural virtually sharpened in מִחוּץ on the outside, and in מִחוּט Gn 1423; before ה in מִֽהְיוֹת (cf. §28b and §63q. The closed syllable here is inconsistent with the required virtual sharpening of the ה; probably מִֽהְיוֹת is merely due to the analogy of לִֽהְיוֹת); similarly Is 143 before ר; but in 1 S 2328, 2 S 1816 מִרְּדֹף is to be read, according to §22s.

 [102c2. There are also three other particles, the most commonly used prepositions and the particle of comparison, which have been reduced by abbreviation (§99c) to a single prefixed consonant with Še (but see below, and §103e), viz.:

בְּ [poet. בְּמוֹ] in, at, with.

לְ [poet. לְמוֹ] towards, (belonging) to, for, Lat. ad.

כְּ‍ [poet. כְּמוֹ] like, as, according to (no doubt the remnant of a substantive with the meaning of matter, kind, instar).

 [102d]  With regard to the pointing it is to be observed that—

(a) The Šewâ mobile, with which the above prefixes are usually pronounced, has resulted from the weakening of a short vowel (an original ă, according to f)[2]; the short vowel is regularly retained before Še: before Šewâ simplex

  1. König, Einleitung ins A.T., p. 393 (cf. also the almost exhaustive statistics in his Lehrgebäude, ii. 292 ff.), enumerates eight instances of מִן before a word without the article in 2 Samuel and Kings, and forty-five in Chronicles.
  2. Jerome (see Siegfried, ZAW. iv. 79) almost always represents בְּ by ba.