Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/88

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nected by Maqqēph with a following monosyllable, e.g. הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹֽחַ Gn 69, וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן Gn 17; or two words of more than one syllable, e.g. שִׁבְעָֽה־עָשָׂר seventeen, Gn 711. Cf. the Greek proclitics ἐν, ἐκ, εἰς, εἰ, ὡς, οὐ, which are atonic, and lean on the following word.

 [16c]  2. Mèthĕg[1] (מֶ֫תֶג i.e. a bridle), a small perpendicular stroke under the consonant to the left of the vowel, indicates most frequently the secondary stress or counter-tone, as opposed to the principal tone marked by the accents. It serves, however, in other cases to point out that the vowel should not be hastily passed over in pronunciation, but should be allowed its full sound. Hence other names of Mèthĕg are Maʾarîkh, i.e. lengthener, and Gaʿyā, i.e. raising of the voice, which is Great Gaʿyā with long vowels, otherwise Little Gaʿyā.[2]

 [16d]  It is divided into: 1. The light Mèthĕg. This is subdivided again into (α) the ordinary Mèthĕg of the counter-tone, as a rule in the second (open) syllable before the tone, e.g. הָֽאָדָ֫ם (cf. also such cases as מֶֽלֶךְ־צֹר); but also in the third when the second is closed, e.g. הָֽאַרְבָּעִ֫ים (also in such cases as עֶֽבֶד־הַמֶּלֶךְ), and when the third is not suitable for it, even in the fourth (open) syllable before the tone. This Mèthĕg may be repeated in the fourth syllable before the tone, when it already stands in the second, e.g. שָֽׁבֻעֹ֥תֵיכֶ֫ם. Finally it is always added to the vowel of an open ultima, which is joined by Maqqēph to a word beginning with a toneless syllable and so without Mèthĕg (e.g. בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל, on the other hand רִשְׁפֵי־קָ֑שֶׁת, לֹא־אֶֽהְיֶה), or to a word beginning with Šewâ before the tone-syllable, e.g. מִֽי־לְךָ֫, שְׁלֹמֹֽה־בְנִ֫י &c.; the object being to prevent the Šewâ from becoming quiescent.

 [16e]  The ordinary light Mèthĕg is omitted with a movable וּ copulative, consequently we do not find וּֽבָנִים, &c. (nor even וּֽבְנֵי, &c., contrary to b, α; but וּֽזֲהַב[3], &c., according to b, δ, cf. §10g b).

 [16f]  (b) The firm or indispensable Mèthĕg. (α) With all long vowels (except in certain cases, וּ copulative, see above), which are followed by a Šewâ mobile preceding the tone-syllable; e.g. יִֽרְאוּ, יִֽשְׁנוּ &c. (β) To emphasize a long vowel in a closed syllable immediately before Maqqēph, e.g. שָֽׁת־לִי Gn 425 (not šŏth-li); hence also with כֹּֽל־ ψ 1382 and אֵֽת־ Jb 4126 (for כָּל־ and אֶת־; cf. also מֵאֵֽת־ Jo 1518, &c.). (γ) With Ṣere, which has become toneless through retraction of the tone, in order to prevent its being pronounced as Segôl[4], e.g. אֹ֫הֵֽב דָּ֑עַת Jb 121 (not ʾohĕbh). (δ) With all vowels before composite Šewâ, e.g. יַֽעֲמֹד, צֹֽעֲקִים, &c. (except when the following consonant is strengthened, e.g. יִקְּֽבֶ֫נּוּ Jo 622, because the strengthening by Dageš excludes the retarding of the vowel by Mèthĕg); so in the cases discussed in §28c, where a short vowel has taken the place of a Ḥaṭeph, as יַֽעַמְדוּ, &c. (ε) In the preformative syllable of all forms of הָיָה to be, and חָיָה to live, when Šewâ quiescens stands under the ה or ח, e.g. יִֽהְיֶה, תִּֽחְיֶה (yih-yè, tiḥ-yè), &c., cf.

  1. Critical annotation: No breve on the last e is probably a printing error.—A. E. A.
  2. Cf. as the source of this account of Mèthĕg, the exhaustive treatment by S. Baer, 'Mèthĕg-Setzung nach ihren über lieferten Gesetzen,' in A. Merx's Archiv für die wissenschaftl. Erforschung des A. Test., Heft i, Halle, 1867, p. 56 ff., and Heft ii. 1868, p. 194 ff.; Baer and Strack, Dikduke ha-ṭeamim, p. 30 ff.
  3. Critical annotation: וּֽזֲהַ֛ב Gn b12 in Qoren Tanakh.—A. E. A.
  4. Critical annotation: Spelled Seghôl, possibly a typo.—A. E. A.