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Benedict XIII.; and, after many refusals, he went in 1735 to St. Petersburg to engrave some medals for the Empress Anne of Russia. In 1737 he returned to Stockholm, but some years later he was compelled by the rigour of the climate to leave Sweden altogether. His later years were spent at his native place, where he died March 14, 1771. A handsome folio volume with engravings of about one hundred and seventy of his chief medals, and a life by C. Mechel, was published at Basle in 1778.—J. T-e.

HEDWIG, Johann, a distinguished German botanist, was born at Cronstadt in Transylvania in 1730, and died at Leipsic in 1799. He showed an early passion for botany, and with the view of indulging it he prosecuted the study of medicine at Leipsic. He went afterwards to Chemnitz in Saxony, where he devoted attention to the grasses and cryptogamic plants. In 1781 he returned to Leipsic, when he was appointed first professor of medicine, and subsequently, in 1789, professor of botany and director of the botanic garden. These offices he continued to fill until his death. He was an excellent observer, and did much to advance the cause of botany, more especially in the muscological department. His work entitled "Fundamentum Historiæ Naturalis Muscorum frondosorum," &c., was published at Leipsic in 1782, and is a pattern of microscopical observation and physiological research. He wrote much on botany, and at the time of his death was engaged in a work entitled "Species Muscorum frondosorum," &c., which was published subsequently as a posthumous work by Schwægrichen. A genus of mosses was named Hedwigia after him.—J. H. B.

HEEM, Jan David de, a celebrated Dutch fruit and flower painter, and also of all such objects as are called still-life, glass, metal, &c., was the son of a painter of the same name, and was born at Utrecht in 1600. He died at Antwerp in 1674.—His son, Cornelius de Heem, born in 1630, was also an excellent painter in the same department of the art.—R. N. W.

HEEMSKERK, Martin, a celebrated old Dutch painter, born at Heemskerk in 1498. His family name was Van Veen, and his father, who was a farmer, employed young Martin in ordinary farm labour; but the son having a strong desire to be a painter, fled from home and placed himself with an obscure painter of Delft. He afterwards studied under Schoorel at Haarlem, and in 1532 he visited Rome, where he remained three years, and became known as an imitator of Michelangelo, under the name of Martin Tedesco. To judge from his works in the gallery at Munich, the principal now remaining, he does not seem to have possessed much originality, and was but an inferior follower of the great Flemish painters. He died rich at Haarlem in 1574. There is a "Last Judgment" by him at Hampton Court Though his pictures are now scarce, prints after him are numerous.—R. N. W.

HEERBRAND, James, an eminent Lutheran theologian of the sixteenth century, was a native of Giengen in Swabia, where he was born in 1521. He studied at Wittenberg under Luther and Melancthon, 1538-43. On his return home he was immediately ordained deacon in Tübingen, and afterwards became pastor and superintendent at Herrenberg. In 1551 he was one of the deputies sent by Duke Christopher of Wurtemburg to the council of Trent, and in 1556 he assisted in introducing the Reformation into the dominions of the margrave of Baden. He was soon after made professor of theology at Tübingen, an office which he continued to fill with great diligence and usefulness for forty years. In 1598 he succeeded Andrea in the chancellorship, which he held for eight years; and in 1600 he died in his seventy-ninth year. His writings were very numerous, but the most famous of his works was his "Compendium Theologiæ," first published in 1573, and frequently reprinted not only in Tübingen, but also in Leipsic, Wittemberg, and Magdeburg. It was even translated into Greek for the use of the Greek and Oriental churches.—P. L.

HEERE, Lucas de, a celebrated Flemish painter, bora at Client in 1534; both his parents were artists—his father a sculptor, and his mother a miniature painter. After he had acquired the first rudiments from his father, he became the pupil of Frans Floris. He subsequently visited France and England, and was patronized by our Queen Elizabeth, of whom there is a very flattering allegory by De Heere at Hampton Court—Juno, Minerva, and Venus, are all put to confusion by the sudden appearance of our queen amongst them. De Heere was poet as well as painter, as we are informed by Van Mander. In 1570 he painted a gallery for Edward, earl of Lincoln, then lord high-admiral, in which he represented the costumes of different nations ; but because the Englishman was always changing his dress, he represented him naked with a pair of sheers in his hand surrounded by materials—a device he borrowed, says Walpole, from Andrew Borde's Introduction to Knowledge. He died at Ghent in 1584. Of his poetical works the principal is "The Garden of Poetry" (Boomgaard der Poësÿë). He was Van Mander's master.—R. N. W.

HEEREN, Arnold Hermann Ludwig, an eminent German historian, was born 25th October, 1760, at Arbergen, near Bremen, where his father was pastor. He received a careful education at home and at the Bremen cathedral school, and devoted himself to the study of philosophy and history at Göttingen under Heyne (whose daughter he afterwards married) and Spittler. Soon after he began lecturing, and published an edition of "Menander de Encomiis," which made him favourably known in the learned world of Germany. He then took great pains in preparing an edition of Stobæus' Eclogæ Physicæ et Ethicæ, 4 vols., 1792-1801, with a view to which he ransacked the principal libraries of Italy, Paris, and the Netherlands. After his return to Göttingen he was appointed professor extraordinary in 1787, and some years later professor ordinary of philology, in addition to which chair he also obtained that of history in 1801. At the same time he became an active member of the Royal Göttingen Society, and in 1827 succeeded Eichhorn as editor of the Göttingen Gelehrten Anzeigen, which he conducted till his death on the 7th March, 1842. From philology Heeren turned by degrees to the exclusive study of history, in which field he has indeed reaped his fairest laurels. This transition was chiefly effected by the study of Polybius, to which we owe Heeren's "opus magnum," his "Ideas on the Politics, the Intercourse, and Commerce of the Principal Nations of the Ancient World," which in every respect must be considered as a standard work. The "Ideas" was followed by the "History of Classical Literature," a work highly eulogized by Hallam. Heeren's "Histories of the Ancient States, and of the European States and their Colonies," were the fruits of his lectures, and abound in original suggestions. For his "Investigations into the History of the Crusades" he was awarded a prize by the National Institute of France. Among his many minor works are the biographies of Johannes von Müller, and his own father-in-law, Chr. G. Heyne. A collective edition of his historical works was published in 15 vols., 1821-26.—K. E.

HEERKENS, Gerard Nicholas, was bora at Groningen in 1728. He adopted the medical profession, but is only known as a man of letters. His reputation rests on his poems in Latin and Italian. While in Italy he visited Rome in 1760, where he was elected a member of "Gli Arcadi." The discovery of Horace's villa is due to him. He visited Venice, where he published his "Iter Venetum." He died in 1801.—J. F. W.

HEERMANN, otherwise HERMANN, John, a German poet and divine, bora in Silesia in 1585. He was a protestant, and during the Thirty Years' war suffered much in consequence of his religion. He at length took refuge at Lissa in Poland, where he died in 1647, leaving numerous works in verse and prose, particularly "The Music of the House and Heart."—B. H. C.

HEGEL, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, the profoundest of German metaphysicians, was born at Stuttgart on the 27th August, 1770. He could trace his descent through a long line of Carinthian and Swabian ancestors who had filled respectable places in the middle ranks of society, and some of whom, in the time of the Thirty Years' war, had suffered persecution and expatriation on account of their attachment to the protestant cause. His father was superintendent of the ducal finances—a post, it may be supposed, of much trust and responsibility. The Swabian temperament—its gravity, straightforwardness, and perseverance—is said to have declared itself at an early period in the life and conversation of the future philosopher. While still in his teens he went by the nickname of "the old man." His school and college diaries, extracts from which have been published by his biographer Rosenkranz, attest the extent and variety of his studies. They afford evidence of indefatigable industry, of pains and thoroughness, rather than of precocity of genius. Method and persistency were the characteristics of the youthful scholar, as they were of the mature metaphysician. At the university of Tubingen, to which he proceeded in 1788, he was a fellow-student with Schelling—a kindred spirit, who presented, too, some very decided points of contrast. For a time