"Entombment," formerly in the cathedral of Forli, where it was placed in 1506.—(National Gallery Catalogue.)—R. N. W.
PALMIERI, Matteo, chronicler, born in Florence about 1405; died about 1475. Born of an illustrious house, he was employed on various embassies, elected a member of the Council of Ten, once invested with the dignity of gonfalonier, and twice chosen prior. His principal work is a "Chronicle," ranging from the creation to his own times; and subsequently carried down to the year 1482, by his quasi-namesake, though neither relative nor co-citizen, Mattia Palmieri.—C. G. R.
PALOMINO y VELASCO, Antonio, the Spanish Vasari, was born at Bujalance in 1653, but was educated at Cordova, and was destined by his parents for the clerical profession. In 1672, however, the example and instructions of Valdez Leal induced him to turn his attention to painting, which be adopted as a profession in 1678 after a visit to Madrid. In 1680 he completed in Madrid some works left unfinished by Juan de Alfaro; and he married about this time the daughter of the Spanish minister in Switzerland. In 1686 Claudio Coello employed Palomino to assist him in the frescoes of the queen's gallery in the Alcazar, a work he performed so well that the king, Charles II., in 1688, gave him the title of court painter; but he was soon afterwards eclipsed in the royal favour by the arrival of Luca Giordano. Palomino, however, had the honour of painting the panels of a carriage for Charles's queen, Maria of Neuburg. He removed in 1697 to Valencia, where he executed many frescoes; and while staying there, in 1698 he was raised to the dignity of salaried painter to the king. He painted also at Salamanca and at Granada, and returned in 1713 to his native city of Cordova, and executed some pictures for the cathedral there. From this time be lived chiefly at Madrid, and upon the death of his wife in 1725 he took priest's orders, but died the following year. He was buried near his wife in the church of St. Francis at Madrid, August 13th, 1726. As a painter Palomino's labours were unimportant, but as a writer he ranks high in the annals of Spanish art, though the biographical notices are the most valuable portion of his large work, published in Madrid in 1715-24—"El Museo Pictorico y Escala Optica," 2 vols., folio. It was reprinted in 1797. This work is divided into three parts—the theory of painting, the practice of painting, and biography of Spanish artists, "El Parnaso Español Pintoresco Laureado"' (the Spanish Laureate Pictorial Parnassus). An English abridgment of the Parnassus appeared in London, entitled "An account of the Lives and Works of the most eminent Spanish Painters," &c., 12mo, 1739, pp. 175; and again in Spanish in 1744.—(Cean Bermudez, Diccionario Historico, &c.; Stu-ling, Annals of the Artists of Spain.)—R. N. W.
PALSGRAVE, John, an English scholar of the sixteenth century, who owed his advancement in the world to a knowledge of the French language. Born in London, he studied at Cambridge and at Paris. In 1514 he was appointed teacher of French to King Henry VIII.'s sister Mary, who for political reasons was suddenly called upon to sacrifice her lover, the duke of Suffolk, and marry Louis XII. of France. After being three months queen of France, Mary on the death of her husband returned to England, bringing Palsgrave with her. The latter was rewarded by a prebendal stall in St. Paul's, and the living of St. Dunstan's-in-the-East. In 1530 his French grammar was printed by John Hawkins, under the title of "L'esclaireissement de la Langue Françoyse," three books in a thick folio. Ten years later T. Berthelet printed the English translation of Fullonius' comedy of Acolastus, in which Palsgrave shows his method of teaching languages.—(See Herbert's Ames.)—R. H.
PAMPHILUS, one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek painters, was born at Amphipolis about 410 b.c. He learned painting in the school of Eupompus at Sicyon, which had what we now term realistic tendencies, in contradistinction to the Attic school, which was generic and conventional. Eupompus taught his pupils to imitate nature, not artists. Pamphilus succeeded Eupompus at the head of the Sicyonic school, and spread its reputation so wide that painting and drawing became established through the influence of Pamphilus, says Pliny (xxxv., 10, 36), as essential elements of a polite education in Greece. Slaves were wholly prohibited the practice of these arts. He has the reputation of having applied arithmetic and geometry to the purposes of art—how, is a matter of speculation; established rules of proportion, and perspective we know to be among the first principles of some departments of art. He taught also anatomy, and all the various processes of painting. The anatomy must have been illustrated from the living model, as the Greeks did not dissect. The first of the moderns who dissected for purposes of art was Antonio Pollajuolo, a Florentine of the fifteenth century. The elaborate course of study in this school of Pamphilus occupied ten years, and the fee was an attic talent, about £216 sterling. It is recorded that Apelles and Melanthius paid this sum—in no way unreasonable, considering the long course of studies provided. Pamphilus" own works were distinguished for their beauties of composition; but four of them only are mentioned—"The Heraclidæ;" "The Battle of Phlius;" "Ulysses on the Raft;" and a "Family Portrait" (?). He left writings on painting and famous painters: these too are lost.—(Wornum, Epochs of Painting, &c.)—R. N. W.
PAMPHILUS (Presbyter), was born at Berytus in the latter half of the third century. After being educated in his native city he went to Alexandria, and studied under Pierius. Returning to Palestine he became a presbyter under Agapius, bishop of Cæsarea. His life was spent in the latter place. During the persecution of the christians by Diocletian he was cast into prison by Urbanus, governor of Palestine. His intimate friend Eusebius was most kind to him during his incarceration, till Pamphilus suffered martyrdom (309) by command of Firmilianus. He was a learned man, fond of theological literature, benevolent, pious, a lover of the good. An admirer of Origen's works, he transcribed most of them with his own hand; especially the corrected copy of the Septuagint in the Hexapla. He also wrote a biography and vindication of Origen in five books, to which Eusebius added a sixth; but all are lost except Rufinus' Latin version of the first book. Pamphilus collected an extensive theological library, which he gave to the church at Cæsarea. It was destroyed when that city was taken by the Arabs in the seventh century. Eusebius, his great admirer, wrote his life in three books, which are now lost. Had this work been preserved, we should doubtless have known much about the character of a man to whom biblical literature owes much; and whose life was a noble testimony to the cause of christian truth.—S. D.
PANÆNUS of Athens, a distinguished painter, brother, or rather nephew of Phidias, was employed in decorating most of the great works raised at Athens immediately after the close of the Persian war, and he assisted his uncle Phidias in the decorations of the throne of the Olympian Jupiter, executed in ivory and gold by that great sculptor. He painted the "Battle of Marathon" in the public portico of Athens, known from this and other pictures as the Pœcile, or variegated. This picture was an extensive composition in four parts, in which Panænus was assisted by Micon of Athens. It contained iconic figures of Miltiades and other generals; they could not have been actual portraits, unless copies, as the picture was not painted until about 450 b.c., about forty years after the battle. The Olympian Jupiter was painted about 436 b.c. The pictures of the Pœcile were apparently on panels, as they were all removed in the reign of Arcadius, about the year 400, or upwards of eight centuries after they were painted.—(Wornum, Epochs of Painting.)—R. N. W.
PANÆTIUS, a celebrated stoic philosopher, was born at Rhodes, probably between 180 b.c. and 170 b.c. He studied at Athens in early life, but Rome was the principal scene of his mature philosophical labours. At this time the republic was in its most flourishing condition. It was the era of the third Punic war. The arms of Rome were everywhere victorious, and the rudeness of her primitive manners had begun to be tempered by more polished tastes. Literature had sprung up in the poetry of Ennius and Lucilius, and in the plays of Plautus and Terence, the latter of whom was but recently dead. Scipio Africanus the younger, the conqueror of Carthage, and Lælius, whom Cicero has immortalized in his treatise De Senectute, were warm patrons of philosophy and all liberal accomplishments. Under the auspices of these illustrious men, with whom he lived on terms of intimate friendship, Panætius introduced stoicism to the Romans, about 145 b.c. The anti-philosophical party, with Cato at their head, protested in vain against the importation of Greek philosophy. Fostered by the great names of Scipio and Lælius, the doctrines of Panætius took root and flourished. His stoicism was of a modified and moderate character. He avoided the extreme opinions of the earlier stoics. He softened their severity and harshness; he abjured their "insensibility and apathy" (Aulas Gellius, 12. 5), and skilfully incorporated with their doctrines many of the opinions of Plato, Aristotle, Xenocrates, and