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answered by several protestant writers, against whom Phillips defended himself. He also wrote "Philemon," an account of his own life, and other works.—B. H. C.

PHILO BIBLIUS, so called from Bibles in Phenicia, a grammarian belonging to the close of the first century after Christ. He translated into Greek the Phenician history of Sauchoniathon in nine books. Nothing more than the first book has been preserved, and that too in a very corrupt state, in Eusebius' Præparatio Evangelica. Some historical works were also composed by Philo, but all are lost. The publications of Wagenfeld of Bremen purporting to give Philo's work, are forgeries (1837).—S. D.

PHILO of Byzantium, who lived about one hundred and fifty years before Christ, Wrote various treatises on mechanics. His principal work is on the seven wonders of the Old World, the best edition of which is Orelli's, 8vo, Leipsic, 1816.—S. D.

PHILO, properly PHILON JUDÆUS, so called to distinguish him from others of the same name, was a native of Alexandria, and belonged to a priestly family of distinction among the Jews settled there. The greater part of his life was devoted to the pursuit of learning and philosophy; but in consequence of the persecutions to which the Jews were subjected by the Roman emperors, he was compelled to engage in public affairs in his old age. He was one of an embassy sent to Rome, A.D. 39 or 40, to endeavour to procure relief from the oppression and persecution to which the Jews were exposed; and as he speaks of himself as the oldest of the ambassadors, we shall probably not err in concluding that he was at this time about sixty years of age; in which case his birth must have taken place somewhere about 20 B.C. The embassy to Rome was fruitless, and Philo and his friends were glad to escape from the near proximity of the furious madman who then wielded the sovereign power at Rome. We read of one other journey he undertook to Jerusalem, and beyond this we know nothing with certainty of his personal history. He has left behind a considerable number of writings, the principal of which are occupied with the application of the Alexandrian philosophy to the allegorical and theosophic interpretation of scripture. Philo's mind was deeply under the influence of Hellenic culture, and throughout his writings this is much more apparent than the influence derived from his national religion and training. His aim is to reconcile the revelations of scripture with the speculations of Platonism. His writings do not give evidence of his possessing either a very original or a very powerful mind; but they are valuable as preserving for us a form of religious thought and speculation, of which no other specimen equally complete survives. The best edition of his works is that by Mangey, 2 vols., folio, London, 1742. A useful edition is that by Richter, Leipsic, 1828-30.—W. L. A.

PHILODEMUS, an Epicurean philosopher, was resident at Rome in the time of Cicero, by whom he is blamed in the Oration against Piso for lending his brilliant talents and accomplishments to the amusement of the profligate debauchee, Piso. Cicero further censures him for making an unworthy use of the Epicurean philosophy, and writing licentious verses for Piso's entertainment. He is, however, treated with marked forbearance by Cicero, who does not even mention him by name, and praises highly his learning, genius, and taste, while blaming him for not making a better use of those qualities. Elsewhere Cicero terms him a most learned and excellent person. His licentiousness is mentioned by Horace, and thirty-four epigrams by him still extant in the Greek Anthology fully confirm the charge. A manuscript work by Philodemus on music has been discovered at Herculaneum, but has not yet been published.—G.

PHILOLAUS, the earliest expositor of the Pythagorean philosophy of whom we have any knowledge, was born either at Crotona or at Tarentum in Southern Italy. The dates of his birth and death are uncertain, but he was a contemporary of Socrates, 409-399 B.C., although somewhat younger than the Athenian sage. Plato is said to have availed himself of the researches of Philolaus, more particularly in his dialogue entitled Timæus. All that we possess of his writings are a few fragments, which have been collected and carefully edited by the German scholar, Augustus Boeckh. According to the Pythagorean philosophy generally, as represented by Aristotle, number is the principle and essence of all things, a position which when properly explained is neither untrue nor unintelligible.—(See Pythagoras.) Philolaus expresses the principle somewhat differently. The elements of all things, he says, are "the limiting and the unlimited," and out of these "the limited," i.e., the universe, is generated. The world (κοσμος) cannot be explained by the simple element of limitation, for limits require something to which they are applied, nor can it be explained by the single element of the unlimited, for the unlimited is the chaotic and inconceivable. But let these two principles combine, let limits be imposed upon the unlimited, and the ordered universe is the result. It is obvious that if we suppose things to be thus constituted, we must regard them as originally unlimited, for it would be altogether futile to suppose limits induced upon what was already limited. Plato, in his dialogue entitled Philebus, afterwards adopted and applied to moral purposes this Pythagorean doctrine of the limiting and the unlimited. The doctrine is important in the history of speculation as an early expression of that fertile truth which is the basis of all sound philosophy, and which Hegel has done more than any other philosopher to signalize; the truth, namely, that the universe and everything which it contains is a unity of contraries—in other words, that absolute oneness (unity without diversity) is altogether inconceivable and absurd.—J. F. F.

PHILOPŒMEN, an eminent warrior and statesman of Greece, was born at Megalopolis in Arcadia about 252 B.C. He was educated under Cleander of Mantineia, and afterwards under Ecdemus and Demophanes. His youth was spent in the sedulous study of the military art, and he took part in the wars of his countrymen as soon as he was able to handle arms. In 222 B.C., when the Spartans made a nocturnal attack upon Megalopolis, Philopœmen was at the head of the small band of brave men who covered the retreat of the citizens. In 221 B.C. he commanded against the Spartans along with Antigonus, and was present at the battle of Sellasia, where his spirited conduct gained for him the applause of the Macedonians, as well as that of his own countrymen. After this Philopœmen took part in the wars in Crete, and did not return to Megalopolis till 210. He there occupied himself with remodelling the Achæan army; and in 209 B.C. he distinguished himself in the expedition against Elis. Next year he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Achæan league. He continued his exertions for the improvement of his army, and was rewarded by the brilliant victory over the Spartans at llantineia. After the accession of Nabis to the Spartan throne hostilities were resumed, and in 202 B.C. Philopoemen relieved the town of Messene which had been seized by that tyrant. In the following year he defeated Nabis at Scotitas, immediately after which he again retired to Crete. In 192 B.C. he was again commander-in-chief of the Achaean league. When the Spartan war broke out afresh in 189 B.C. Philopœmen again commanded the Achæans, took possession of Sparta, and sold three thousand citizens as slaves. In 183 B.C. he rose from his sickbed to attack Messene, which had seceded from the league; but the expedition was unsuccessful, and Philopoemen, who fell into the hands of the enemy, was put to death. His remains were taken to Megalopolis, and there buried with great pomp.—D. M.

PHILOSTORGIUS, of Cappadocia, was, according to Vossius, born about 307, and in the reign of Theodosius the Younger. He wrote twelve books of ecclesiastical history, extending from the commencement of the Arian controversy to about 425. Photius has preserved considerable portions of this history, and given some account of its author. The fragments were first published by Gothofredus, with notes and a Latin version. Philostorgius was an Arian, and Nicephorus Callistus, who quoted from him, calls him Theomises, or the God-bater.—B. H. C.

PHILOSTRATUS, Flavius, a Greek rhetorician who lived from about 170 to 240, was a native of Lemnos. He travelled much, visiting Italy, Gaul, and Spain. At Rome he delivered lectures, and gave lessons in oratory. Several of his writings are still extant, namely, "A Life of Apollonius of Tyana;" "Epistles," mostly amatory; "The Lives of the Sophists," a work extending from Gorgias and Protagoras to his own time; the " Imagines," a description of a picture-gallery, with an account of the subjects represented in the paintings; "Heroica," treating of poetry and mythology in reference to the ancient heroes. Philostratus is an eloquent and pleasing author, well versed in the literature of ancient Greece, and throws considerable light on various questions of mythology and art. A good edition of his works is that by Kayser, Zurich, 1844.—G.

PHILOTAS. See Parmenio.

PHILOTHEUS, a monk of Mount Athos in the fourteenth century, eminent for his learning. He was a Greek by birth, and entered the monastic state at Mount Sinai; he was abbot of Mount Athos before 1354, then archbishop of Heraclea, and