Page:Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Volume 1 (2nd edition).djvu/35

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State of the Swan River Colony Oct., 1830.

' tralia which borders on the sea-coast, in the direction of north
' and south. The highest and easternmost of these has its southern
' termination near to King George's Sound. The second termi-
' nates at Cape Chatham, and is that of which General Darling's
' range behind Swan River is a portion. Cape Leuwin is the
' southern termination of the third range, which is inferior in
' altitude as well as in extent to the other two, disappearing at
' Cape Natureliste, and only showing itself again at "Moresby's
' Flat-topped Range," about half-way between Swan River and
' Shark's Bay, or three hundred miles to the northward of, and
' on the same meridian with, Cape Leuwin.

' On these ranges and their intervening valleys the soil varies
' according to position and altitude. On the mountains and
' higher hills the surface is rugged and stony; in the lower sides
' of both the soil is excellent; but in the principal valleys and
' the lower grounds, where the sandstone formation prevails, it is
' of a very inferior description, except where the alluvial depoist
' of the rivers gives it a different character. These general rules
' are exemplified in the neighbourhood of the newly established
' town of Augusta, amd may be. taken as applicable generally to
' all other parts of the territory, except on the sea-coast, where
' the regular formations have been invaded and modified by ex-
' traneous substances, generally of a calcareous nature.

' The position chosen for the new town possesses the advan-
' tages of excellent soil, plenty of good water, a pleasant aspect,
' and easy access in moderate weather to the anchorage, and to
' the interior country. The inlet is of considerable extent, and
' leads to the river we called "Blackwood," and which has a
' southerly direction for fifteen miles, and a westerly one ten
' miles, before it ceases to be navigable by boats. Its banks are
' covered with good timber of the stringy bark and red gum; but
' the soil is a light sandy loam, which is seldom sufficiently strong
' for successful cultivation. The best soil, the finest blue-gum
' timber, and some good grass are mostly to be found on hilly
' land; but on the general there is usually found food for
' cattle, and very good sheep pasture on the downs skirting the
' coast. The anchorage is sheltered from the usual winter windes,
' but is open to those which blow between south and east-south-
' east. The position of Augusta, with reference to the navigation
' of these seas, and the quality of the surrounding country, will
' make it a convenient place for vessels to stop at, on their way
' to the eastern colonies from England, India, and the Cape; and
' on these grounds there is great reason to hope, that it will soon
' rise to a considerable degree of commercial prosperity.'

Another discovery has been made by Ensign Dale and a small party on the eastern side of Darlng's range, and at the distance