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on economics and political science, was born at Springfield, Mass., June 17, 1828, and died at Norwich, Conn., Nov. 5, 1898. After graduating at Williams College and at Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard, he for a time was associate-editor of The Springfield Republican, and took a hearty interest in the publication for a series of years of The Annual <?/ Scientific^ Discovery, In 1866 he was appointed United States commissioner of revenue; in 1877 was chairman of a commission to report upon ie laws relating to taxation in the state jf New York; and generally took a prominent part in discussions of the time on financial and economic subjects. He was an industrious and prolific writer. Among his published works are textbooks on Familiar Science, Science of Common Things, Elements of Natural Philosophy, First Principles of Geology, Production and Distribution of Wealth, Practical Economics, The Relation of the Tariff to Wages, Recent Economic Changes and The Principles of Taxation. He also published Robinson Crusoe's Money and Our Merchant-Marine.

Wells'ton, Ohio, a city in Jackson County, on the Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern, Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton, Detroit Southern and Hocking Valley railroads, about 75 miles south-southeast of Columbus. Settled about 1871, it was incorporated in 1876. Besides its public buildings it has a fine park (Lake Alma), and is the seat of Hoy Hospital. It is in a coal and iron mining region, its chief industries (besides the manufacture of cement) being a foundry, barrel-factory and blast-furnaces. The city owns its waterworks and its electric-light plant. Population 6,875.

We'ner or Vener, Lake. See SWEDEN.

Weser (va'zer), one of the chief rivers of Germany, flows through Prussia and empties into the North Sea. It is 260 miles long, but of little use for navigation.

Wes'ley, Charles, was born at Epworth, in Lincolnshire, England, Dec. 18, 1708. The name is thought to be the same as Wellesley, and Garrett Wellesley offered to make Charles Wesley his heir if he would settle in Ireland, but the offer was declined, and the estate went to another branch of the family, from which came Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington. Charles Wesley, after studying at Oxford, went to Georgia with his brother John. On his return to England he took an active part in the work of forming the Methodist church. He is especially known as a hymn-writer, some of the most beautiful hymns in collections of hymns being his work. Jesus, Thy Robe of Righteousness and Blow Ye the Trumpet, Blow are among the best known of his large contributions to the music of the church, which numbered 4,100 published hymns and 2,000 in manuscript. He died at London, March 29, 1788. Consult Life

by Jackson and that by Telford and Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology.

Wesley, John, the founder of Methodism, was born at Epworth, in Lincolnshire, England, June 17, 1703. He was made a fellow in Lincoln College, Oxford, where, with his brother Charles and a few others, he began a systematic course of religious exercises tlufc gave them the name of Methodists. In 173 5 he went to Georgia as preacher to the colonists and missionary to the Indians, and became impressed with the views of the Moravians who were his fellow-passengers at sea. After two years he returned to England. Here he studied the Moravian doctrines, and ascribed his conversion to a Moravian meeting in London. He began his preaching in London, and soon joined George Whitefield in open-air services, sometimes delivering 800 sermons a year. The meetings were attended by thousands, especially in the mining and manufacturing districts. Persecution and opposition resulted in Wesley's forming bands for prayer and a church-society and, finally, in his ordaining preachers to be sent to America, Scotland and other places, thus separating entirely from the Church of England. He traveled nearly 270,000 miles, usually on horseback, and preached over 40,000 sermons, He wrote a large number of volumes on religious subjects, and with Charles, his brother, published a collection of hymns. He died at London, March 2, 1791. See Lives by Southey, Watson and Moore and History of the Religious Movement of the i8th Century by Stevens.

Wes'leyan Univer'sity, at Middletown, Conn., was founded in 1831, and is the oldest of the colleges established under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal church in the United States. It has 35 instructors, 340 students and a library of 16,000 volumes. Benefactions in 1907 were $77,891; income $185,960; and productive funds $1,522,521.

West Bay City. See BAY CITY.

West, Benjamin, an American painter, was born at Springfield, Pa., Oct. 10, 1738. His first portrait was a picture of his baby-sister, smiling in her sleep, made when he was only seven. His colors were made from berries, and his brush was of hairs stolen from the cat's tail. His first work was done at Philadelphia and New York, but in 1760 he went to Italy for further study, and after three years of training settled in London. Here he became famous at once, and was appointed historical painter by George III. He was one of the four artists who formed the Royal Academy, and was chosen to succeed Sir Joshua Reynolds as its president. His paintings mostly were on historical and religious subjects, on a large scale, in imitation of the old masters. The Death of Wolfe, the Battle of