wasj in 1845, ordained a minister to a charge in Dundee. During a visit to Germany, he made himself thoroughly acquainted with* the speculatiYe theology of that coun- try. In 1849 he was presented to the parish of Kettins, in Forfar- shire, and on the death of Principal Haldane, in 1851, became Principal of St. Mary's College, University of St. Andrews, and received the degree of D.D. He first attracted attention as a writer in the British Qiuirterly Review, and the articles on Carlyle*8 "Life of Sterling," Bunsen's ** Hippolytus," and " Vi- net," in the North British Review, are understood to be from his pen. In 1855 he received the second of the gpreat Burnett prizes on the " Being and Attributes of God," amounting to J6600, and his Essay was published imder the title " Theism." The first prize (^61,800) was adjudged to the Rev. Robt. A. Thompson, for the essay " Christian .Theism," published in 1855. He has written "Leaders of the Refor- mation,** published in 1859 ; " Eng- lish Puritanism and its Leaders, Cromwell, Milton, &c.,** "Begin- ning Life : Chapters for Yoimg Men," in 1861; and "Christ of the Gospels, and Christ of Modem Criticism ; Lectures,*' in 1864 ; and " Rational Theology and Chris- tian Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century,** 2 vols., 1872. He has since contributed various articles to the Edinburgh Review, especially, it is understood, the important arti- cles on " The Positive Philosophy '* (April, 1868), and on " Dr. New- man*s Grammar of Assent*' (Oct. 1870), and also a series of papers in the Contemporary Review on " Liberal Churchmen,** and the " Cambridge Platonists of the 17th Century.*' He published " ReUgion and Theology : a Sermon for the Times," in 1876; avolumeofCroall Lectures on "The Christian Doc- trine of Sin,** 1876; "Pascal," in 1878 ; and a volume of Sermons, 1877, entitled " Facts of Religious Life.**
TUPPER, Martin Farquhab, son of a surgeon, descended from an ancient Guernsey family, born in London, in 1810, was educixted at the Charterhouse and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took the degrees of B.A., M.A., and D.C.L. He was called to the bar, but never prac- tised, and has written " Geraldine and other Poems,** 1838 ; " Pro- verbial Philosophy,** 1839- 1 1 ; " Mo- dem Pyramid,* 1839 ; " An Author's Mind,'* and "The Twins, a Tale," 1811; "Crock of Gold," IStl-; " Hactenus : a Budget of Lyrics,'* IS 18 ; " Surrey : a Rapid Review of its Principal Persons and Places,** 1819; "King Alfred's Poems in English Metre,'* 1850; "Farley Heath, Record of its Remains,** and " Hymn for all Nations, in Thu'ty Languages,** 1851 ; " Ballads for the Times and other Poems," 1852 ; " Heart, a Tale," 1853 ; " Proba- bilities : an Aid to Faith," 1854 ; " Lyrics," 1855; " Stephen Langton : or, the Days of King John,** 1858 ; " Three Hundred Sonnets," 1860 ; " Rides and Reveries of Mr. ^sop Smith,** 1861; "Cithara, Lyrics, 1863 ; and a variety of fugitive pieces in prose and verse.
TURKEY, Sultan of. (See Abdul-Hamid II.)
TURNER, GoDPBBT Woedb- woRTH, was born in London, in 1825. His family traditions, both on his father's and his mother's side, being literary, he acquired at an early age a thorough knowledge of all the great EngUsh poets and proso writers, on whose works he con- tinued, throughout boyhood and youth, to exercise a naturally good verbal memory. In his favourite studies he was constantly encou- raged and assisted by his parents, and he also owed in very great degree the soundest part of a pri- vate education to his grand-uncle, Edward Wollstonecrort. Having some aptitude for art, he became a pupil of Mr. Leigh, to whom not a few distinguished painters of the present day are indebted for their 3 T 2