Page:Men of the Time, eleventh edition.djvu/159

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obtaining directly from Parliament the measure they desired, they led to a change in the law of marriage and divorce. Miss Smith established at Paddington a school for the education of the daughters of artisans of the middle class. In July, 1857, she married M.Eugène Bodichon, M.D., and has since resided in Algeria, on which country she has, in conjunction with her husband, published an interesting and valuable work. Madame Bodichon, by her efforts and munificent donation of £1000, was mainly instrumental, with Miss Emily Davies, in founding the now flourishing and well-known College for Women at Girton, near Cambridge, where precisely the same course of academical instruction afforded to men in the universities is given to female students. It is, however, as a charming and original water-colour artist that Madame Bodichon is best known to the public, her collection of water-colour drawings having been exhibited several times in London with great success, also at the Royal Academy, Dudley Gallery, Paris, and elsewhere. Poetic treatment, boldness of execution, and a keen eye for the subtler aspects of Nature, characterise all Madame Bodichon's works, which have ever found appreciative criticism and a large public.

BODICHON, Eugène, M.D., husband of the lady mentioned above, was born at Nantes in 1810, of an ancient Breton family on the maternal side, and on the paternal side of a family ennobled two centuries before. He took his degree as physician of the faculty of Paris in 1835, and soon after settled in Algeria, at once actively participating in the political and social questions then agitating the colony. At that time Dr. Bodichon was one of three Republicans only, but mainly owing to their combined efforts a true democratic spirit was infused into all sections of society, and now Algeria is so entirely Republican that on the occasion of general elections Conservative candidates do not even offer themselves. Dr. Bodichon contributed for many years to the first Republican journal printed in Algiers, advancing upon every occasion those theories which have since been put into practice by the Government, namely, a civil instead of military régime throughout the colony; tribal, instead of individual responsibility, in the case of Arab insurrection; and the réboisement or replanting of forests, as the only means calculated to modify the climate, rendering it habitable for Europeans. On the proclamation of the Republic in 1848, Dr. Bodichon was named corresponding member of the Provisional Government, and he immediately suggested the liberation of the slaves in Algeria—a measure at once carried out. Since that time Dr. Bodichon has occupied himself with scientific and political writings, and the introduction into the colony of the anti-febrile Australian blue gum tree, or Eucalyptus globulus. In 1866 he published his most important work, "De l'Humanité," at Brussels, the types having been broken in Algiers by order of the Imperial Government on account of a powerful analysis of the character of the First Napoleon. This monograph has been translated into English. Dr. Bodichon's "Considération sur l'Algérie," and "Hygiène à suivre en Algérie," may be ranked among the classics of Algerian literature; whilst the value of his ethnographical investigations has been acknowledged by M. Henri Martin and other eminent authorities.

BÖE, Francis Didier, a painter, born at Bergen, in Norway, May 28, 1820, studied art in the Academy of Copenhagen and the studio of M. Greenland, and in 1849 took up his residence in Paris. The flower-paintings which he sent to the galleries of Christiania and to the French exhibitions were remarkable for freshness