pering with the 8<ms^ficier8 of the garrison. Immediately upon the proclamation of the Provisional Oo- ▼emment of Sept. 4, 1870, the exile turned up aeain, and his subsequent history is legibly written in the records of revolution at Marseilles, Lyons, and Paris. For a short time he was at the head of the military operations of the Paris Ck>mmune, but, like nearly all the other agents of that body, he soon fell under sus- picion, and was arrested, though he was released from custody shortly before the entrance of the Versailles troops. It was reported that he was shot between Sept. 22—26, 1871; but, notwithstanding the vigi- lant search made for him by the police, he remained in concealment in Paris till the end of the month of December, 1871, when he escax>ed to London. Soon afterwards he went to the United States. The Third Council of War, sitting at Versailles, condemned him to death, par contumace, Aug. 30, 1872. Clu- seret and his publisher were on Jan. 27, 1881, sentenced by default to two years' imprisonment and 3000 f . fine for an article inciting soldiers to mutiny.
COBBE, Miss Frances Power, daughter of Charles Cobbe, Esq., of Newbridge House, co. Dublin, D.L., J.P.. was born Dec. 4, 1822, and educated at Brighton. She has been a frequent contributor to the periodicals of the day, and is the author of the following works : •* The Workhouse as an Hospital," 1861 ; " Friendless Girls, and How to Help Them," 1861, containing an account of the Preventive Mission at Bristol; "Female Education,"
1862 ; " Thanksgiving : a Chapter of Religious Duty," 1863; "The Bed Flag in John Bull's eyes,"
1863 ; " Essays on the Pursuits of Women," 1863; "Broken Lights: an Inquiry into the Present Condi- tion and Wture Prospects of Reli- gious Faith," 1864, 2nd edit. 1865, 8rd edit. 1878 ; " The Cities of the iVist/' 1864, reprinted from Fra$er's
Magazine; " Religious Duty," 1864 ; "Italics: Brief Notes on Politics, People, and Places in Italy," 1864 ; " Studies New and Old of Ethical and Social Subjects," 1865 ; " Hours of Work and Play," 1867 ; " The Confessions of a Lost Dog," 1867 ; " Dawning Lights : an Inquiry Con- cerning the Secular Results of the New Reformation," 1868 ; " Crimi- nals, Idiots, Women, and Minors. Is the Classification soimd ? A Discussion on the Laws concerning the Property of Married Women," 1869 ; the preface to " Alone to the Alone : Prayers for Theists, by several Contributors," 1871 ; "Dar- winism in Morals, and other Es- says," 1872; "The Hopes of the Human Race, Hereafter and Here. Essays on Life and Death, and the Evolution of the Social Sentiment," 1874; "Re-Echoes." 1876; "Moral Aspects of Vivisection," 3rd edit., 1877 ; and " Duties of Women : " a Course of Lectures, 2nd edit., 1881.
COBBOLD, Thomas Spencer, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., youngest son of the late Rev. Richard Cobbold, author of " Margaret Catchpole," was born at Ipswich, May 2(j» 1828, and graduated with the highest honours at Edinburgh in 1851. He was immediately afterwards ap- pointed Curator of the University Anatomical Museum, during which time he delivered lectures with the sanction of the Senatus Academi- cus. Working at geology and natural history, under Edward Forbes, he published numerous me- moirs in the scientific journals, and was appointed Vice-President of the Physiological Society. On the death of Forbes, he came to Lon- don, and was soon afterwards elected to the chair of Botany at St. Mary's Hospital. In 1860 he was appointed to the chair of Botany, and subsequentlv also to the chair of Comparative Anatomy, at the Middlesex Hospital. In 1868, through the recommendation of the late Sir R. Murchison, he