the intrigues of a party whose interests were based on this uncon- genial union^ Isabella II. never knew the beneficial influence of domestic happiness^ estrangements and reconciliations having suc- ceeded each other alternately in her married life. It deserves special mention, however, that during her reign Spain rose to take rank among the great powers of Europe, while the internal progress of the country advanced with rapid strides. On Sept. 16, 1868, a great revolution broke out in Spain, commencing with the fleet off Cadiz, and gradu- ally spreading over the whole pen- insula. The speedy result was the formation of a Republican Provi- sional Government under Prim, Serrano, and others, at Madrid, and the flight of Queen Isabella to France. On Nov. 6 her Majesty took up her residence in Paris, where she remained during her exile, with the exception of an in- tervad spent at Geneva durilig the Franco-Prussian war. On June 25, 1870, she renounced her claims to the Spanish throne in favour of her eldest son, the Prince of the Astu- rias. (See AiiPONso XII.) After eight years of exile she returned to Spain, and was received at Santan- der by her son. King Alfonso XII. (July 29, 1876). On the eve of her depiu^ure she addressed the follow- ing letter to Marshal MacMahon : — "Paris, July 27. — Before leaving beautiful and hospitable France, the cradle of my family, and where during eight years I have con- stantly received marks of conside- ration and respect, I feel it a duty in gratitude, not being able to thank all the French individually, to address myself to him who pre- sides over the destinies of the generous people whose prosperity so much interests me and my chil- dren. You know my feelings, and you can have no doubt as to the recollection I bear with me of this dear country, the refuge of the Spanish Monarchy during days of
cruel revolution. I am returning to my country to ioin my children, but I retain here tne house in which I have spent happy years. In future I shall share my days be- tween our two countries. I beg you, M. le President, to communi- cate to France, through the Journal QjBUciel, this sincere expression of my gratitude, and you, my dear Marshal, believe me ever yours sincerely, Isabellb de Bourbon." Queen Isabella has five children : — 1. Infanta Marie-Isabel-Fran9oi8e- d' Assise - Christine -de - Paule - Do- minga, born Dec. 20, 1851. 2. Al- fonso XII., King of Spain. 3. In- fanta Marie d^l Pilar, born June 4, 1861. 4. Infanta Maria deUa Paz, bom June 23, 1862 ; and 5. Infanta Maria Eulalie, born Feb. 12, 1864.
ISMAIL-PASHA, ex- Viceroy or Khedive of Egypt, son of Ibrahim Pasha, and grandson of the cele- brated Mehemet Ali, was born at Cairo in 1830, and succeeded his brother Said Pasha, Jan. 18, 1S63. He was educated in Paris, and on his return to Egypt, in 1849, he opposed the policy of Abbas Pasha, the Viceroy, who, as it was supposed for political purposes, made, in 1853, a criminal charge against him, which was not, however, proceeded with. In 1855 he visited France on a con- fidential mission, and proceeded thence to Bome, where he conveyed some magnificent Oriental presents for the Pope's acceptance. The Viceroy's policy in Egypt was said to be in accordance with that of his predecessor, namely, the de- velopment of the resources of his country ; but he had much trouble in his transactions with M. de L^- seps in relation to the Suez CanaL These difficulties were, however, arranged in July, 1864, by the arbitration of the Emperor NtLpo- leon, whose decision was accepted by the Viceroy. From this period the Viceroy took a warm interest in the undertaking, and in 1869, when the works were approaching completion, he visited most of the