communal houses of the Indians at the time of the first white settlements in our country, the pueblos of New Mexico and Arizona, the structures whose ruins abound in Mexico and Central America, and the mounds of the mound-builders, illustrate a common type of house-construction and a communistic mode of living by the gens or tribe, which are not peculiar to the American aborigines, but have appeared as elements in primitive life at a stage between savagery and barbarism, among many other nations. The illustrations, drawn from and applied to all the classes of structures under review, and the historical citations, afford strong re-enforcements to the author's presentation.
Geology of the Environs of Tokio. By David Brauns, Ph. D., M. D., Professor of Geology in Tokio Daigaku. Tokio, Japan: Tokio Daigaku. 1881. Pp. 85, with Eight Plates.
This is Number IV of the "Memoirs" of the Science Department of the University of Tokio, and contains accounts of the examinations of the alluvial, diluvial, and tertiary deposits of the neighborhood of Tokio, Yokohama, and other parts of Japan, some of which present difficult problems, and descriptions of the fossils (mollusks). The conclusion is reached that the Japanese shell-layers which were examined have the greatest resemblance with the Crag, and next to it with the younger sub Apennine deposits, while the rocks resemble very closely the European Faluns. The plates, besides a sketch-map of the environs of Tokio, give representations of earth-sections and of some thirty typical fossils.
Report on the Geology and Resources of the Black Hills of Dakota. By Henry Newton, E. M., and Walter P. Jenney, E. M. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 566, with Atlas.
Professor Newton's part of this work includes the general introduction, observations on the routes to and from the Black Hills, and the account of the geological formations of the region, as observed in his survey during the summer of 1875. The author died in 1877, before completing his report, and the work of finishing it fell to Mr. C. K. Gilbert, who has performed it with fidelity to the author's intention, bearing in mind what has been learned concerning the gold of the Black Hills since the survey was made. Mr. Jenney's part of the report is his own exclusively, and includes a detailed review of the mineral resources, and the climate and general resources, of the Black Hills. Additional chapters, with plates of illustrations, are furnished: On "Paleontology," by R. P. Whitfield; "Microscopic Petrography," by John II. Caswell; "Botany," by Asa Gray; and "Astronomy" and "Barometric Hypsometry," by Horace F. Tuttle.
Measurements of the Force of Gravity at Tokio and on the Summit of Fujinoyama. By T. C. Mendenhall, Ph. D., Professor of Experimental Physics in Tokio Daigaku. Tokio, Japan: Published by Tokio Daigaku. 1881. Pp. 17.
This is Number V of the "Memoirs" of the Science Department of the University of Tokio. The experiments were conducted with a pendulum, in 1880, and produced results that seemed to show that the mountain is deficient in attraction.
Chemical and Physical Analysis of Condensed Milk and Infants Milk Foods. By Dr. Nicholas Gerber. Translated and edited by Dr. H. Endemann. New York. 1882. Pp. 101. Nineteen Plates.
The Establishment of an International Tribunal. By A. H. Stoiber. New York. 1882. Pp. 24.
Catalogue of Southwick & Jenck's Natural History Goods. Providence, Rhode island. 1881. Pp. 23.
Quarterly Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics for the Three Months ended September 30, 1881. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1882. Pp. 130.
Circulars of Information of the Bureau of Education. No. 5. 1881. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1881. Pp. 47.
Pulpit Talks on Topics of the Time. By the Rev. J. H. Rylance, D. D. New York: I. K. Funk & Co. 1882. Pp. 46.
Question-Book of Natural Philosophy. With Notes, etc. By Albert P. Southwick. Ansonia, Ohio. 1881. Pp. 16. 10 cents.
Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1881-1882. Vol. i, No. 2. November, 1881. Published for the Academy. Pp. 29.
Contributions to the History of the Vertebrata of the Lower Eocene of Wyoming and New Mexico. Made during 1881. By E. D. Cope. Philadelphia, 1881. Pp. 98.
Report of the Proceedings of the Ensilage Congress. Published by the New York Plow Company. 1882. Illustrated. Pp. 66. 30 cents.
The Development History of the Flowers of the Gunnera Chilensis. By William A. Keller-