Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 22.djvu/295

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Phonetics of the Kayowe Language. By Albert S. Gatschett. Pp. 6.

A Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Edited by George Grove, D.C.L. Parts XV and XVI. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 272. $2.

Sanitary Tracts. Issued by the Citizens' Sanitary Society of Brooklyn. Pp. 12. 5 cents.

Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. Transactions No. 3. Ottawa, Canada: Citizens' Printing and Publishing Company. Pp. 60. With Two Plates.

The Practice of Gynæcology in Ancient Times. By Edward W. Jenks, M.D., LL.D. Chicago, Illinois. Pp. 46. With Two Plates.

Statistics in Relation to Gold and Silver. Compiled by E. J. Farmer. Cleveland, Ohio. Pp. 37. 25 cents.

The Analogy between Sound and Color. By G. G. Finn. Cleveland, Ohio. Pp. 22.

The Muscles of the Limbs of the Raccoon. By Harrison Allen, M.D. Pp. 30.

Tornadoes. Their Special Characteristics and Dangers. With Practical Directions for Protection of Life and Property. By John P. Finley. Kansas City, Missouri; Ramsay, Millett & Hudson. Pp. 29.

Tornado Studies for 1882. By John P. Finley. Kansas City, Missouri: Ramsay, Millett & Hudson. Pp. 14.

Notes on Physiological Optics. By W. Le Conte Stevens. Pp. 8.

Unscientific Materialism. A Criticism of Tyndall's "Fragments of Science." Fifth edition. By S. H. Wilder. New York. Pp. 16.

A New View of our Weather System. By Isaac P. Noyes. New York: Fowler & Wells. Pp. 51. 25 cents.


The Flora of North America.—Professor Asa Gray gave an historical account, at the last meeting of the American Association, of the study and compilation of the North American flora. The first "Flora" of the country was published by Michaux, in 1803. It embraced plants representing the whole region from Hudson Bay to Florida, and contained 1,530 species. The work of Pursh followed about twenty years afterward, and represented a much smaller territory, not extending west of Virginia or north of Lake Champlain, but contained 740 genera and 3,700 species. Dr. Gray himself started on his great botanical work in 1 830, while he was an assistant in a doctor's office in New York. It is not exactly known when Dr. John Torrey conceived the idea of publishing a third "Flora of North America," but he invited Nuttall to join him in the work as early as 1832. Arrangements were afterward made with Dr. Gray, and the first volume of the conjoint work was issued in 1838. It was generally thought that the orders remaining to be described could be soon worked out, and the "Flora" completed, but the rapid publication which the fulfillment of such an anticipation required was not possible. Dr. Torrey had already been to Europe and spent a considerable time in the study of foreign herbaria. Dr. Gray also visited Europe at the end of 1838, and spent several months in the same work, paying especial attention to the American herbaria of Michaux, Pursh, De Candolle, and others. A second volume of 500 pages appeared in 1840, and carried the "Flora" to the end of the Compositæ. The work was then interrupted by the pressure of other duties, so that the third volume was not added to the series till 1880. The labor of pushing the work to completion is very difficult now compared with what Pursh endured when the species were fewer and the number of specimens collected of each was many times less. The first volume of the present "Flora" contained about twice as many species as Pursh gave for the same orders; and the number of species in these families has increased greatly in the thirty years since its publication. American flowering plants can not now be represented with less than 10,000 species, and the number is increasing daily, so that soon 12,000 may be required. The amount of material collected is vast; additions are constantly pouring into the Harvard herbarium, and the time of the compilers is severely taxed to work it over. The work in the future must be divided up among many persons, each doing a part; and Dr. Gray earnestly solicits the co-operation of all botanists.

The Proposed Geological Map of Europe.—The International Geological Congress, which met at Bologna last year, decided upon the preparation of a geological map of Europe, which should exemplify a uniform terminology and a uniform system of coloring, and appointed an International Committee to superintend the work. The execution of the map will, of course, require many years, but its general plan and the regulations under which it is to be carried on have been already provisionally agreed upon. The map is to be published at Berlin, under the immediate direction of Messrs. Beyrich and Hauchecorne, of the