Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 41.djvu/532

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and bean plants for comparison. These two seedlings, because representing the two great types of flowering plants, namely, the exogens and endogens, made it possible to illustrate the leading features of each by contrast. Sketches and descriptions of these were made during the hour by each pupil. Recognizing the fact

Student's Name________
 
 1. Is the FLOWER—
Perfect?
Complete?
Regular?
Symmetrical?
 2. Is the CALYX—
Gamosepalous?
Polysealous?
Free?
Adherent?
 3. Is the COROLLA—
Gamopetalous?
Polypetalous?
Free?
Adherent?
 4. How many STAMENS?
Free.
Adherent.
Anthers.
Innate.
Adnate.
Versatile.

Filaments.
Shape.
Length.
 5. How many PISTILS?
Free.
Adherent.
Stigma.
Style.
Ovary.
Cells.
Placentation.
Ovules.
Number.
Position.
Fruit.
Seed.
 6. INFLORESCENCE.
 7. LEAVES.
Arrangement.
Venation.
Shape.
Base.
Apex.
Margin.
Petiole.
Stipules.
 8. STEM.
Exogenous.
Endogenous.
 9. COMMON NAME.
10. SCIENTIFIC NAME.

Fig. 1.

that seeds come from flowers, and that the time for the course was short, a half-hour was spent in the study of a very simple flower, the spring lily (Erythronium americanum). For this purpose a blank was provided, shown in part in Fig. 1, and before the session was through the various parts of a blossom were learned. Similar blanks were given the pupil for home study, and, before leaving, each was handed a box containing five kinds of seeds—namely, corn, bean, flax, clover, and timothy—with directions for sowing in a box or flower-pot for individual home study. In addition to this the first twenty pages of Gray's Revised Lessons were assigned for study. The public library of the city was equipped with a full list of reference-books in botany at the beginning of the course.

The second lecture embraced a consideration of the stem and root. The chief differences between these two plant-members were pointed out and illustrated with specimens. Buds, as to their nature, structure, arrangement, etc., were dwelt upon, followed by many illustrations of various kinds of stems, such as tendrils, spines, and numerous forms of subterranean stems, like potato tubers, bulbs, and root-stocks of many plants. Various kinds of roots were shown, particular attention being paid to the functions of these underground portions, followed by an exposition of the way in which the soil constituents are taken up by plants.

The first half of the class exercise of the second day was occupied with a study of the buds of the horse-chestnut, in connection with more advanced specimens of the same species in which the buds have unfolded, and the scales, leaves, and flower-cluster were fully shown. After drawings were made of these, and a study of the corn-stem to illustrate the second type of stem (endogen), the remaining portion of the hour was occupied with work on two