Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 49.djvu/448

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an abnormity as a maniac or an idiot. In other words, he has a dangerous disease, and should be treated as a diseased member, and not as a mischievous boy. His side of the question, however, is of the least importance; society's first duty is to itself. Individuals who can not live in accordance with the laws which govern civilized societies should be placed where they can do the community no harm. On the other hand, the nonprofessional criminal—who, through some untoward combination of circumstances, in a given instance becomes an offender against the laws—is in quite a different relation to the social body from the hereditary criminal. The former deserves punishment; the latter, treatment. Here, then, besides possible wide individual differences, we have a well-marked class difference among criminals, and it is quite evident that society must consider this class difference in devising successful corrective or protective legislation.


The Chamacocos.—Since the discovery by Dr. Bohls in lagoons in the Lengua territory, near the Paraguay River, of that rare and curious fish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, in large numbers, scientists have taken a special interest in this region. Cavaliere Guido Boggiani, an Italian artist, recently spent three years near these lakes, living with two of the native tribes, the Chamococos and the Caduveas, where he seems to have collected much material of scientific value. Henry H. Giglioli, in a recent Nature, gives an account of the ethnological data gathered during the expedition. The Chamacocos, who are especially known to ethnologists through their singular long-handled stone axes, are nomads; they are tall, well shaped, the skin of a reddish tinge. The men have long, black hair, which is worn tied in a knot behind, in a thick queue, or flowing loose. The women are less handsome, and wear their hair short. No clothing is worn by either sex, except rough sandals of peccary skin when on the tramp. On festive occasions they decorate themselves with a profusion of feather ornaments, necklaces of seeds, and the rattle of the crotalus, the latter of which are worn in diadems, armlets, leglets, and united in bunches as ear pendants. They make rude pottery, but do not use the potter's wheel. From Boggiani's description the Chamacocos seem to be an inoffensive and happy people, who relieve their exuberant spirits in frequent festivities; they have numerous games, one of which might be described as primitive lawn tennis. Their weapons are clubs, wooden spears, large bows for shooting arrows, and small bows with a double string used for shooting clay bullets. The women make neat bags and reticules of different kinds of netting and also hammocks, for which they use the fiber of the ybira. They have some curious superstitions regarding food; thus, deer flesh is only eaten by men, while women can feed on birds and small game. Among the many interesting facts collected by Boggiani is a small vocabulary of the hitherto unknown language of these people.


The Bulgarians, according to the report of the United States consul at Annaberg, love music. They sing a great deal, at home, in entertainments, and in their occupations. The shepherds or the harvest-reapers on opposite heights often sing in alternation, stanza in answer to stanza. The attendants and armed escorts of traveling parties raise their voices in chorus, and soldiers sing on the march. Musical instruments are much in use—the primitive native ones, and the modern inventions which are taking the place of these. The predominant national instrument is the gajda, or bagpipe, the melancholy and monotonous tones of which are precious to them. Other instruments are the kaval, a very simple wooden shepherd's pipe, producing a shrill note; the gadulka, or cigulka, instrument of two strings, emitting melancholy tones; the gypsy fiddle, or kemené, a superior instrument; the bulgarina, a sweet guitar with four strings, which is played upon by means of a goosequill; and the drukja, or bajalma, a similar guitar, played with two fingers. All the instruments are manufactured by the gajdari, who formerly constituted in the town a special guild.