Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 66.djvu/21

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which has exerted a profound influence alike upon educational theory and upon religious thought, and withal a practical student and expert adviser in conspicuously active touch with the complex organization of instruction in our schools. Commissioner Harris doubtless traced the history of social culture from its first beginnings, as the unfolding temporal expression of an immanent purpose realizing itself through the instrumentality of human institutions, and having therefore from the start a unity of aim, at once natural and divine, namely, the perfection of spiritual citizenship in a rational society of personal selves.

Thus it was, in a general way, that these 'seven wise men' opened the gates of their respective fields of science. It is unfortunate that the aspiring listener was limited to the choice of a single one of this series. These men and their discourses have been chosen for specific characterization because they furnish a clue to the diversities as well as to the unities which pervaded the whole of the congress.

The divisional addresses over, the twenty-four departments were free to open fire. These were operated, eight at a time, at three intervals, scheduled for the late mornings and for the early and the late afternoons, respectively. It was thus possible for, say, the philosopher to do his duty by his own department at 11.15 while enjoying that of psvchology at 2, with the freedom after 4 to choose between education, religion, sociology or some department farther afield, or yet again, to see something of the fair!

Xo account of the departments can be given which would be at all representative. Their titles have been already indicated under each of the divisions. It should be recorded that in general the departmental meetings were conducted by Americans, one in the chair and two with prepared addresses respectively on fundamental conceptions and methods, and on the history of progress during the last century. In some cases the fundamental character of the conceptions and methods discussed might be opened to question, and in others the ancient habit of beginning any history with Adam was not successfully inhibited, yet on the whole these departmental discourses did conform to the specifications prescribed, and the two addresses nicely supplemented each other. It remains only to illustrate the personnel a little more fully.

Taking philosophy as the first on the program, its chairman was Professor Borden P. Bowne, of Boston University, valued for his conservative temper, constructive scholarship, and the keen, clear and interesting analysis long familiar to a group of grateful students and readers. The historical paper was presented by Professor George Trumbull Ladd, celebrated for the comprehensiveness and thoroughness of his productive erudition over the whole field of mental and moral philosophy and as one who helped to lay the cornerstone of experimental psychology in America, whose name is honorably associated with