21.Washington Township in Snyder.
cheap ore has been largely exhausted. The soft fossil ore originally taken from this property was of very high qual- ity, both on acconnt of its richness in iron and its general purity ; but that being mined in 1888 could not have yielded over 40 per cent. of metallic iron.
These mines are operated in precisely the same manner as Ripka’s, and the ore bed shows the same characteristics of roof and floor, réquiring dressing and blasting.
Bickel’ s mines are situated at the head of an east branch of the Kremer ravine, about 14 miles southeast of that vil- lage, and near the public road to Freeburg. The ore has been developed here on both sides of the anticlinal, and is the same Bird-eye fossil already described. In the open- ings.on the north side of the anticlinal the dip is fully 20° to the northwest, and the gangways have been driven east- ward into the side hill, giving about 25 yards of breast. The ore is of good quality, thongh hard and calcareous.
There are six independent gangways between creek level and the point of the ridge in a distance of about 500’, one above the other; the last tliree are closer together, giving smaller breasts.
There was no work being carried on here when visited ; but the ore blocks at the different drift openings were about 8” thick which may be taken as the thickness of the bed. These blocks seem to be rather more free from the roof and floor slates than that mined further west, and much of it is said to not reqnire ‘* dressing.’’ The increased dip, in connecticn with the depth of the ravine, is some- what of an advantage here, as it allows the ore to “run down’’ the breasts, saving that much additional labor.
Mining was paid for abont $2a ton here and if ** dressing”’ is not required it should be put at the pit mouth for 50 cents a ton cheaper than at Pontins & Ripka’s mines. The ore bed rises southwards under light cover, and is again opened in several places on the south side of the hill facing the ravine fHowing towards Kremer. Here the cover of shales is not over 30’ and the dip about 5°, so that a con- siderable amount of soft fossil ore has been mined at this point. These openings are on Andrew Bickel’s property