E. V. d’Invilliers, 1889.
The Slenderdale anticlinal of Juniata county expires just south of Freemont in the Marcellus black shale, and rising westward like the Shamokin synclinal it elevates a spur or knob of Oriskany sandstone and Lower Helder- berg limestone on the West Perry line, southwest of Free- mont.
Going down the Mahantango creek, one of the river syn- clinals is passed a short distance north of Troutwell, hold- ing Chemung rocks No. VIIL An anticlinalof these same rocks succeeds just south of the village, and a second syn- clinal along the Chapman line north of Meiserville. From here south the rocks all rise to the southeast towards the Georgetown anticlinal beyond the township limits, in: Juniata county.
The rock series extends from the Medina white sandstone No. [Ve of Shade mountain, up to the base of the Che- mung rocks No. VIIT in the Troutwell synelinal.
The Clinton measures, holding the Ore sandstone and Iron sandstone, outcrop between the base of Shade moun- tain and the Klopperdale valley ; but the exposures are very meager, owing to the increasing dip of the rocks and the approach of these measures towards the mountain flank, upon which they really make a terrace.
The Bloomsburg red shale makes a distinct band of red land east and west through the township from Garman’s saw mill on the east to the west Perry line. No ore has been opened in any part of the Climton measures in this town- ship, although there can be but little doubt of the presence of the Birds Hye fossil ore bed in just as good condition as it is in Washington township, only the steeper dip here prevents an economical development in the absence of all water gaps.
The upper Salina lime shales create a fertile strip sonth of the lower Salina red beds, upon dips of from 40°-60° 8. KE. The valley is quite elevated here, and is locally called the Hiester valley though essentially 1 continuation of the Klopperdale valley of Washington and Penns townships.
The Lower Helderbarg limestone makes a very promi-