Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/221

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b. The same forms are used in the older language, without variation, except that (as usual) imā́ occurs for imāú and imā́ni, and amū́ for amū́ni; amuyā when used adverbially is accented on the final, amuyā́; asāu (with accent, of course, on the first, ásāu; or without accent, asāu: 314) is used also as vocative; amī, too, occurs as vocative.

502. a. The former of these two pronouns, ayám etc., plainly shows itself to be pieced together from a number of defective stems. The majority of forms come from the root a, with which, as in the ordinary pronominal declension, sma (f. sy) is combined in the singular. All these forms from a have the peculiarity that in their substantive use they are either accented, as in the paradigm, or accentless (like ena and the second forms from ahám and tvám). The remaining forms are always accented. From aná come, with entire regularity, anéna, anáyā, anáyos. The strong cases in dual and plural, and in part in singular, come not less regularly from a stem imá. And ayám, iyám, idám are evidently to be referred to a simple root i (idám being apparently a double form: id, like tad etc., with ending am).

b. The Veda has from the root a also the instrumental enā́ and ayā́ (used in general adverbially), and the gen. loc. du. ayós; from ima, imásya occurs once in RV., imasmāi in AA., and imāis and imeṣu later. The RV. has in a small number of instances the irregular accentuation ásmāi, ásya, ā́bhis.

c. In analogy with the other pronouns, idám is by the grammarians regarded as representative stem of this pronominal declension; and it is actually found so treated in a very small number of compounds (idammáya and idáṁrūpa are of Brāhmaṇa age). As regards the actual stems, ana furnishes nothing further; from ima comes only the adverb imáthā (RV., once); but a and i furnish a number of derivatives, mostly adverbial: thus, for example, átas, átra, átha, ad-dhā́(?); itás, íd (Vedic particle), idā, ihá, ítara, īm (Vedic particle), īdṛ́ç, perhaps evá and evám, and others.

503. The other pronoun, asāú etc., has amú for its leading stem, which in the singular takes in combination, like the a-stems, the element sma (f. sy), and which shifts to amī in part of the masc. and neut. plural. In part, too, like an adjective u-stem, it lengthens its final in the feminine. The gen. sing, amúṣya is the only example in the language of the ending sya added to any other than an a-stem. The nom. pl. amī́ is unique in form; its ī is (like that of a dual) pragṛhya, or exempt from combination with a following vowel (138 b). Asāú and adás are also without analogies as regards their endings.

a. The grammarians, as usual, treat adás as representative stem of the declension, and it is found in this character in an extremely small number of words, as adomūla; adomáya is of Brāhmaṇa age. The ÇB. has also asāunā́man. But most of the derivatives, as of