years of age, who have resided five years, and are payers of any s known as 'Verghis.' Municipal councils exist in the principal
of the taxes
towns, elected practically by all resident householders and ratepayers. Those
eligible to the council must be voters rated upon property of the annual value
of from lOl. to 20Z., according to population.
Area 3,584 square miles. Population, 1891 :— 106,838 males, 102,448 females ; total, 209,286, exclusive of the military ; per square mile, 58 "39. Mohammedans, 47,926; others, principally Greek Church, 161,360. The birth-rate was computed in 1890 at 33-4 per 1,000, and the death-rate at 24 per 1,000.
The principal towns are Nicosia (the capital and seat of government), 12,515 ; Larnaca, 7,593 ; Limasol, 7,388 (two chief ports) ; Famagusta (with Varoshia), 2,251 ; Papho (including Ktima), 2,801 ; Kyrenia, 1,322 in 1891. The island is divided into six administrative districts called respectively by the names of these six towns.
Excepting a gymnasium and three 'high schools ' for Greek- Christians, and a Rushdie or ' high school ' for Moslems, the schools of the island are of an elementary character. There is a Government inspector, and the Government contributes 4,021^. per annum to education. In 1898 there were 220 elemen- tary Greek-Christian schools with about 12,500 scholars ; 80 Moslem schools, with about 3,500 scholars, 3 Armenian schools, and 1 Maronite. Total cost (exclusive of Government grant), about 6,0001. — fees, voluntary con- tributions, and endowments. There are 8 weekly newspapers in Greek, and 3 in Turkish.
The law courts (reformed in 1883) consist of (1) a supreme court of civil and criminal appeal ; (2) six assize courts, having unlimited criminal jurisdic- tion ; (3) six district courts, having limited criminal jurisdiction and unlimited civil jurisdiction ; (4) six magisterial courts with summaiy jurisdiction ; (5) ten village judges' courts. In all, except supreme court, native (Christian and Mohammedan) judges take part. Serious crime, which was large in pro- portion to the population, is decreasing ; the people are prone to litigation. The police force when at full strength consists of about 700 men.
The revenue and exi)enditure for five years, ended March 31, were : —
Revenue Expenditure .
£ 167,093 114,756
£ 188,658 129,494
Revenue is derived chiefly from tithes (in kind) on the principal products of the island, taxes on immovable property and trade profits, military exemp- tion tax, sheep, goat, and pig tax, customs duties, excise, stamps, and court fees, and a salt monopoly. Customs revenue (1897-98), 26, 851Z.
No Public Debt. A sum of 92, 8001. is payable annually to the Sublime Porte under the convention of 1878. Annual grant from imperial funds to revenue, 1895-96, 35,000Z. ; 1896-97, 46,0001. ; 1897-98, 33,000^.
Cj'XJi'US is essentially agricultural. Chief products — coni, cotton, carobs, linseed, olives, silk, raisins, fruit, vegetables, silk, animals, cheese, wool, hides, and wine. One-third of cultivable land under cultivation. Gypsum and terra umbra are found in abundance. Sponge fishery yields sponges valued at between 20,000/. and 30,000/. per annum, but the coasts are not fished by nitives of the island.