Belgium (including Belgian Congo) (cont.).
1890. Right acquired to annex Congo Free State.
1894. Revision of constitution; universal suffrage.
1899. Proportional representation established.
1908. Congo State annexed as Belgian Congo.
1909. Death of Leopold II; accession of King Albert.
1863. Annexation of Schleswig-Holstein made independent: disputes with Prussia; new constitution.
1864. Schleswig and Jutland taken by Prussia; peace treaty, giving up duchies.
1906. Death of Christian IX; accession of King Frederick VIII.
1912. Death of King Frederick; accession of King Christian X.
1870. War declared against Prussia.
1871. Fall of Paris; the third Republic; deposition of Emperor Napoleon III; Thiers president; peace.
1873. Resignation of Thiers; MacMahon president.
1875. Establishment of "The Constitution of 1875.
1879. Jules Grévy president.
1880. Annexation of Tahiti.
1881. Military expedition to Tunis; protectorate established.
1883. Occupation of ports in Madagascar (protectorate 1885, colony 1896).
1883–85. Chinese war; protectorate over Annam and Tongking.
1884. Revision of the constitution.
1885. Grévy president.
1887. Carnot president.
1888. Boulangist movement.
1893. French Guinea, Ivory coast and Benin constituted separate possessions; French Sudan a colony.
1894. Assassination of Carnot; Casimir-Périer president.
1894–5. Arrest, trial and condemnation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus for treason.
1895. Félix Faure president.
1896. Visit of Tsar to Paris (first visit of a European monarch to republican France); Franco-Prussian entente.
1899. Death of Faure; Loubet president.
1904. Anglo-French convention.
1905. Separation Law (abolishing State support of any religion).
1906. Fallières president; Anglo-French administration of New Hebrides agreed upon.
1913. Poincaré president.
1867. North German parliament opened.
1871. Proclamation of William I as Emperor (at Versailles, following Franco-Prussian war); first Imperial parliament; neutrality of Luxemburg guaranteed.
1884. Foundation of colonies in Kamerun, German East Africa, and New Guinea.
1888. Deaths of Emperor William I and his successor Frederick III; accession of William II.
1890. Resignation of Bismarck, chancellor; succeeded by Caprivi; Anglo-German convention (East Africa, Heligoland, etc.).
1894. Resignation of Caprivi; Prince von Hohenlohe chancellor.
1898. Treaty with China (Kiaochau). Death of Bismarck.
1901. Death of Empress Frederick.
1903–4. Herrero rising in German South-West Africa.
1904. Prince von Bülow Chancellor.
1909, Resignation of Prince von Bülow; Dr. von Bethmann-Hollweg chancellor.
1861. Establishment of Kingdom of Italy; Victor Emmanuel king; death of Cavour.
1865. Capital transferred from Turin to Florence.
1866. Alliance with Prussia; war with Austria; Venice united with Italy.
1871. Italian Government established in Rome.
1872. Convention with San Marino.
1878. Death of Victor Emmanuel II; accession of Humbert I; death of Pius IX.
"Irredentist" riots for redemption of Trentand Trieste from Austria.
1882. Death of Garibaldi.
Assab created Crown Colony.
1885. Occupation of Massawa and Beirut.
1887. Italians beaten by Abyssinians at Dogali.
Failure of movement of conciliation between Pope and King.
1889. Treaty of Uccialli, fixing boundary of Italian colony of Eritrea.
1891. Abyssinia recognised as Italian sphere of influence.
1894. War with Mahdists; revolt against Italy in Abyssinia.
1895. Conquest of Tigré.
1896. Italians routed by Abyssinians at Adowa.
Treaty recognising Abyssinian independence, and settling boundary of Eritrea.
1900. Assassination of King Humbert; accession of Victor Emmanuel III.
1907–8. Messina earthquake.
1911. War with Turkey; annexation of Tripoli.