Page:The Art of Bookbinding, Zaehnsdorf, 1890.djvu/214

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without being gilt, it is said to be "blind-tooled" or "antique."

Blocking press.—Another and more general term for the arming press; one of the chief implements used in cloth work. Used for finishing the side of a cover by a mechanical process.

Blocks or blocking tools.—An engraved stamp used for finishing by means of the blocking press.

Boards.—Are of various kinds, each denoting the work it is intended for, such as pressing boards, backing, cutting, burnishing, gilding, etc.

Bodkin.—A strong and short point of steel fixed in a wooden handle, for making the holes through the mill-boards. The slips upon the back of the book are laced through the holes for attaching the millboard to the book.

Bole.—A red earthy mineral, resembling clay in character, used in the preparation for gilding edges.

Bolt.—The fold in the head and foredge of the sheets. The iron bar with a screw and nut which secures the knife to the plough.

Bosses.—Brass or other metal ornamentations fastened upon the boards of books; for ornament or preservation.

Broken over.—When plates are turned over or folded a short distance from the back edge, before they are placed in the volume, so as to facilitate their being turned easily or laid flat, they are said to be broken over. When a leaf has been turned down the paper is broken.

Burnish.—The gloss produced by the application of the burnisher to the edges.

Burnishers.—Pieces of agate or bloodstone affixed to convenient handles.

Cancels.—Leaves containing errors which are to be cut out and replaced by corrected pages (see Asterisk).

Cap.—The envelope of paper used to protect the edges while the volume is being covered and finished.

Case-work.—When the cover is made independent of the book, the book being afterwards fastened into it. Refers principally to cloth and bible work.

Catch-word.—A word used and seen in early printed books at the bottom of the page, which word is the first on the following page. To denote the first and last word in an encyclopaedia or other book of reference.

Centre Tools.—Independent tools cut for the ornamentation of the centre of panels and sides.

Clasp.—The hook or catch used for fastening the boards together when the book is closed; used formerly on almost every book.

Clearing-out.—Removing the waste-paper, and paring away any superfluous leather upon the inside, preparatory to pasting down the end-papers.

Cloth.—Prepared calico, sometimes embossed with different patterns, used for cloth bindings.

Collating.—Examining the sheets by the signatures after the volume has been folded,