There are to-day many places in Yunnan which mark the campaigns of Mang-cu-ko, a celebrated Imperial General about A.D. 230-40, and in Yunnan Fu there is a memorial temple erected to his memory.
Near the Hsia-kuan, at Tali Fu, there is a "myriad-grave" of Chinese soldiers who fell in the seventh century; and west of Tali Fu is also a Tartar "myriad-grave" to the memory of those who died during Kublai Khan's expeditions. Here people pray for the restoration of their sick.
Without dwelling upon the various risings which took place until the final conquest of Yunnan by the Chinese, reference should be made to a Mohammedan rebellion which was only subdued some thirty years ago. The rebels were most powerful in the western part of the province, and indeed for several years a Mohammedan prince ruled over a good part of Westeen Yunnan, having his seat of government in Tali Fu.
With regard to these Mohammedans it may be interesting to quote the remarks of a very intelligent and reliable observer—the late E. Colborne Baber, Esq., of H.M. Legation in China—who during wide travels in Western China, and a prolonged residence in Szechwan, had unusual opportunities of forming correct conclusions on the matters about which he wrote. He says:—
"The Mohammedans of Yunnan are precisely the same race as their Confucianist and Buddhist countrymen; and it is even doubtful if they are Mohammedans, except so far as they profess an abomination of pork. They do not practise circumcision, though I am not sure if that rite is indispensable; they do not observe the Sabbath, are unacquainted with the language of Islam, do not turn to Mecca to pray, and profess none of the fire-and-sword spirit of propagandism." He also quotes the opinion of an Indian native officer who accompanied Dr. Andersen's expedition to Tali at an earlier period—"who frequently lamented the laxity that prevailed amongst them," and asserted that they were "no Mussulmans."