Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/438

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By the Rev. James H. Roberts, American Board.

The missionaries at Kalgan have always been deeply interested in the Mongols, and have done for them whatever they could, in time not required for work for the Chinese. Their motto has been: "To the Chinese first, and also to the Mongols."

Kalgan is a flourishing business city, 140 miles north-west of Peking, where the caravan route to Mongolia and Russia crosses the Great Wall of China. Through this celebrated pass to the Mongolian plateau go the officials, traders, and missionaries from the China coast to the interior, and to Kalgan come the Mongols, to sell their flocks and herds, and to buy what they want of the wares manufactured by the Chinese. Through this place they carry their tribute to Peking, and go on pilgrimages to the sacred mountain called Wu-t'ai-shan, in Shansi.

The word "Kalgan" is the Mongolian "halag," meaning a great gate, and denoting the gate in the Great Wall, where the city has grown up. Russian merchants changed the word to its present form. The Chinese name is Chang Chia K'ou—the Chang Family Pass. This is the front or southern door of Mongolia. It stands wide open every day. Through it come the camels, horses, cattle, sheep, wool, hides, salt, soda, and lumber from Mongolia, and

  1. This interesting article was in answer to a letter asking for details of the American Board work among the Mongols at Kalgan. It was received after the Mongolian article was completed. It is therefore given as a supplementary article.