there commenced the wide circulation of the blasphemous placards which were issued from Hunan. In consequence of these and other disturbances, the Foreign Ministers of the various Powers presented a joint protocol to the Chinese Government in September 1891.
It was during the autumn of this latter year that the new departure of the C.M.S. connected with the name of the Eev. J. H. Horsburgh, the author of Do Not Say, took place, when a band of workers consisting of one clergyman, seven laymen, and five single ladies, with Mr. Horsburgh and his wife with two children, commenced a Mission in the north-west of Szechwan, from which has developed the present C.M.S. West China Mission. Connected with this movement must be mentioned the consecration of the Rev. W. W. Cassels, one of the C.I.M. "Cambridge Seven," as Bishop of West China.
While new workers and new Societies were entering into new spheres of work, the Chino-Japanese War suddenly broke out. The collapse of the Chinese before their island foe, whom they had, up to that time, despised as dwarfs, did not a little to somewhat rudely awaken China from her self-complacency and pride. With the awakening, however, there followed a period of serious unrest and trouble. In the west, the greater part of Szechwan was convulsed by serious riots, and many of the missionaries were for a time driven out of the province. This took place in May 1895. More serious trouble, however, was to follow, for in August of the same year the world was shocked by one of the worst missionary massacres of modern times. On the Hwa mountain, some twelve miles from Kucheng, in the province of Fukien, nine adult workers, with two children, connected with the C.M.S. and C.E.Z.M.S., were cruelly murdered on August 1, while others were severely wounded.
Dreadful and harrowing as were the facts connected with this massacre, it would be difficult to find a more beautiful illustration of that spirit which should characterise those who represent Christ to men than that which was manifested by the sorely stricken families and missionary