TROCHALOPTERUM. 163 Key to Siihsjjecies, A. Back and breast with large black round spots. a. No conspicuous fjrey supercilium. a'. Ear-coverts chestnut, tipped black [p. 163. and white T. e. enjthrocephalum, h' . Ear-coverts bhick, edged pinkish white T. e. nigrimentum, p. 164. c'. Ear-coverts chestnut like the crown . T. e. eri/thvolcema, p. 104. b. A conspicuous f^rey supercilium. d'. Ear-coverts chestnut 2 e. godidni, p. 165. e . Ear-coverts grey with black shafi- stripes T. e. icoodi, p. 166. 13. Back and breast with brown ovcd spots . . T. e. cJiryscpterum, p. 166. 'C No Npots on back or breast. c. Chin and throat only nifous T.e. mdanostigma, p. 107. d. Chin, throat and breast rufous T. e. ramsayi, p. 168, '(148) Troclialopterum erythrocephalum erythrocephalum. The Red-headed Laugh istg-Thrush, Cinclosoma erythrocephalum Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p, 171 (Hima- layas, Ohamba). Trochaloyterum erythrocephalum. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 89.
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. Forehead, crown and nape chestnut; ear-coverts chestnut, each feather blackish near the tip and edged with white; 'lore.s, chin and upper throat black, with a chocolate tinge; cheeks mingled chestnut and black; mantle and sides of neck ohve-brown, each feather with a semicircular bhick mark near the end, lower back plain olive-brown; rump and upper tail-coverts slaty-grey; tail ashy, suffused witlj golden yellow on the outer webs; wing- coverts olive-brown, the greater broadly tipped with deep ferru- ginous; primary-coverts and winglet yellow on the outer webs, ashy on the inner; outer webs of primaries and outer secondaries bright golden yellow; inner secondaries and tips of outer ashy- Wue; the base of the outer webs of the outer secondaries golden red; lower plumage pale fulvous, washed with olivaceous on the sides oP the body and under tail-coverts, each feather of the throat and breast witti a narrow crescentic black bar near the end and tipped with fulvous white.
Colours of soft parts. Iris grey-brown or yellow-brown; bill black; legs and feet pale yellowish- or fleshy-brown or light brown.
Measurements. Length about 2S0mm.; wing 102 to 105 mm.: tail about 120 to 125 mm.; tarsus 37to 38 mm.; culmen about 20 to 22 mm.
Distribution. The Himalayas from Chamba to Nepal.
Nidification. This Laughing-Thrush breeds in May and June at heiglits from 4,000 to 7,000 feet or more, making the usual cup- u2