Page:United States Army Field Manual 3-13 Information Operations.djvu/13

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essential to ensure that the activities and messages of all forces and agencies are synchronized to achieve national objectives. Methods of Attack

1-20. Adversaries may use several methods to attack friendly C2 systems and INFOSYS, or shape the information environment in their favor. The nature of the information environment makes such attacks hard to detect. Some attacks, such as corrupting databases or controlling programs, can be designed with delayed effects. Others may employ immediate actions to degrade or destroy information nodes. Possible attacks are called incidents. An incident is an assessed event of attempted entry, unauthorized entry, or an information attack on an automated information system. It includes unauthorized probing and browsing; disruption or denial of service; altered or destroyed input, processing, storage, or output of information; or changes to information system hardware, firmware, or software characteristics with or without the users knowledge, instruction, or intent (JP 3-13). 1-21. Unauthorized Access. Unauthorized access is designed to gain information from, insert data into, modify data stored within, or delete data from C2 systems. Individuals can log on to military networks, such as local area networks, from the Internet. Firewalls (software that provides network security) exist to prevent this. However, if a firewall is penetrated, the C2 system is penetrated. Unauthorized access need not originate from the Internet and proceed through a firewall breach. A person with physical access to a terminal connected to a C2 system (an insider) can gain unauthorized access. 1-22. Malicious Software. Inserting malicious software causes a computer to operate in a manner other than that intended by its users. Malicious software includes computer viruses, logic bombs, and programs designed to bypass protective programs. Files downloaded from the Internet may contain viruses that disrupt software or corrupt databases. 1-23. Electromagnetic Deception. Electromagnetic deception is the deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to convey misleading information to an enemy or to enemy electromagneticdependent weapons, thereby, degrading or neutralizing the enemy’s combat capability. Among the types of electromagnetic deception are manipulative electromagnetic deception, simulative electromagnetic deception, and imitative electromagnetic deception (JP 3-51).

• Manipulative electromagnetic deception comprises actions to eliminate revealing, or convey misleading, electromagnetic telltale indicators that may be used by hostile forces (JP 3-51). If not properly identified, manipulative electromagnetic deception may result in false information .signals, radiation, or data.being passed through the intelligence analysts, to the commander. Adversaries may pass inaccurate or

Text Box: Methods of Attack · Unauthorized access · Malicious software · Electromagnetic deception · Electronic attack · Physical destruction · Perception management