Page:United States Army Field Manual 3-13 Information Operations.djvu/23

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FM 3-18 LG2. Commanclms conduct otibnsivu IO across tho range of military operations and throughout the spectrum of conflict. The rules nf engagement affect the means used and the effects sought iu any given situation. Offensivc I0 facilitates seizing and retaining the iriitjativc by creating a disparity between the quality of infnrmzition available to friendly Eames and that available to adversaries. The following ciiects cieate this ixttbrmatinn advantage: • Destroy. Destroy is to damage a combat system so badly that it cannot portbrm any function or be restored to a usable condition without being entirely rebuilt (FM 3-90). Destruction is most often the use of lethal and nonluthal means to physically render adversary izifnrmation useless or INFOSYS ineffective unless reconstituted. It is most etlbctivu when timed to occur just bcihrc advoiswies need to execute a C2 timctiou nr when focused on a resource-intensive target that is hard to roonnsti tate. · Disrupt. Disrupi is n tactical mission task in which a commander inte· grates direct and indirect tires, terrain, and obstacles to upset an cn- emy`s tbrmatimi or tempo, interrupt his timetable, ur cause his forces to commit prematurely or attack in a piwemeal fashion (FM 3—$K)). Disrupt, in information operations, means breaking or inter rupting the flow of information between selected (I2 nodes. lt may bu desired when attack resoutces are Limiterl. to comply with rules of ongagemcnt, or to uwate certain elibcts. Eloctmnic attack is a common means of disruptimz adversary C2 systems. Commanders conduct offen- sive I0 across the range of militaiy operations. • Degrade. Dzgrade, in information operations, is using nonletlp al or temporary means to reduce the effectiveness or efficiency of adversary command and control systems. and information collection efforts or means. 05`cnsivc IO can also degrade the morale of a unit, vuduce thu targets worth or value, or rcrlucc the quality of udversaiy d<.·cisiuns and actions. • Deny. Deny, in information operations, entails withholding information about Army force capabilities and intentions that adversaries need for effective and timely decisionmaking. lilies tive denial leaves opponents vulnerable to offensive capabilities. OPSEC is the primary nonletlxal means of denial. It applies through- out the spectrum of conflict. • Deceive, Deccivz is to cause a person to believe what is not true. Military deception (MDl seeks to mislead adversary dccisiom makers by manipulating their understanding of reality, Sucucssful dc» ccption causes thorn wlwelitwc what is not true, • Exploit. Exploit, in information operations, is to gain access to adversary command and contml systems to collect information or to plant false or misleading information. • Influence. InfZuence is to cause adversaries or others to behave in 11 manner favorable to Army forces. It results {mm applying perception management to aftlxct thu targets emotions, motives. and reasoning. Pcmcption management also seeks ui influence the targets perceptions, plans, actions, and will to oppose friendly forces. Ta11,¤ets may includu nuncnmbatants and others in the AO whom commanders want 1-16