Page:United States Statutes at Large Volume 118.djvu/1318

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118 STAT. 1288 PUBLIC LAW 108–333—OCT. 18, 2004 in support of the cult of personality glorifying Kim Jong Il and the late Kim Il Sung that approaches the level of a state religion. (4) The Government of North Korea divides its population into categories, based on perceived loyalty to the leadership, which determines access to food, employment, higher education, place of residence, medical facilities, and other resources. (5) According to the Department of State, ‘‘[t]he [North Korean] Penal Code is [d]raconian, stipulating capital punish ment and confiscation of assets for a wide variety of ‘crimes against the revolution,’ including defection, attempted defection, slander of the policies of the Party or State, listening to foreign broadcasts, writing ‘reactionary’ letters, and possessing reac tionary printed matter’’. (6) The Government of North Korea executes political pris oners, opponents of the regime, some repatriated defectors, some members of underground churches, and others, sometimes at public meetings attended by workers, students, and school children. (7) The Government of North Korea holds an estimated 200,000 political prisoners in camps that its State Security Agency manages through the use of forced labor, beatings, torture, and executions, and in which many prisoners also die from disease, starvation, and exposure. (8) According to eyewitness testimony provided to the United States Congress by North Korean camp survivors, camp inmates have been used as sources of slave labor for the produc tion of export goods, as targets for martial arts practice, and as experimental victims in the testing of chemical and biological poisons. (9) According to credible reports, including eyewitness testi mony provided to the United States Congress, North Korean Government officials prohibit live births in prison camps, and forced abortion and the killing of newborn babies are standard prison practices. (10) According to the Department of State, ‘‘[g]enuine reli gious freedom does not exist in North Korea’’ and, according to the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, ‘‘[t]he North Korean state severely represses public and private religious activities’’ with penalties that reportedly include arrest, imprisonment, torture, and sometimes execution. (11) More than 2,000,000 North Koreans are estimated to have died of starvation since the early 1990s because of the failure of the centralized agricultural and public distribution systems operated by the Government of North Korea. (12) According to a 2002 United Nations European Union survey, nearly one out of every ten children in North Korea suffers from acute malnutrition and four out of every ten chil dren in North Korea are chronically malnourished. (13) Since 1995, the United States has provided more than 2,000,000 tons of humanitarian food assistance to the people of North Korea, primarily through the World Food Program. (14) Although United States food assistance has undoubt edly saved many North Korean lives and there have been minor improvements in transparency relating to the distribu tion of such assistance in North Korea, the Government of North Korea continues to deny the World Food Program forms