416 PUBLIC TREATIES. Anriorn XVIII. Blvckadcd p<>rt¤· And whereas it frequently happens that vessels sail for a port or place belonging to an enemy without knowing that the same is either besieged, hlockaded, or invested, it is hereby agreed by the high contracting parties that every vessel so circumstanced may be turned away from such port or place, but she shall not be detained, nor any part of her cargo, if not contraband, be confiscated, unless, after notice of such blockade or investment, she shall again attempt to enter; but she shall be permit ted to go to any other port or place she shall think proper, provided the same be not blockaded, besieged, or invested. Nor shall any vessel of either of the parties that may have entered into such port or place before the same was actually besieged, blockaded, or invested by the other, be restrained from quitting such place with her cargo, nor, if found therein after the reduction and surrender of such place, shall such vessel or her cargo be liable to confiscation, but they shall be restored to the owners thereofl Anrxomz XIX. Recognition of The two high contracting parties recognize as permanent and immucermin principles. table the following principles, to wit: Free ships make 1st. That free ships make free goods; that is to say, that the eifects or free goods. goods belonging to subjects or citizens of a Power or State at war are tree from capture or confiscation when found on board neutral vessels, with the exception of articles contraband of war. Neutral property 2nd. That the property of neutrals on board of an enemy’s vessel is en •>rwmy’¤ vessel- not subject to confiscation, unless the same be contraband of war. The like neutrality shall be extended to persons who are on board a neutral ship, with this effect, that although they may be enemies of both or either party, they are not to be taken out of that ship unless they are officers or soldiers, and in the actual service of the enemy. The contracting parties engage to apply these principles to the commerce and navigation of all such Powers and States as shall consent to adopt them as permanent and immutable. Anrxorn XX. Contraband arti- The liberty of navigation and commerce shall extend to all kinds of 01**- merchandise, excepting those only which are distinguished by the name of contraband of war, and under this name shall be comprehended- 1. Capnons, mortars, howitzers, swivels, blunderbusses, muskets, fusees, rifles, carbines, pistols, pikes, swords, sabres, lances, spears, halberds, grenades, bombs, powder, matches, balls, and everything belonging to the use of arms. _2. Bucklers, helmets, breastplates, coats of mail, accoutrements, and clothes made up in military form and for military use. 3. Cavalry belts and horses, with their harness. 4. And, generally, all odensive or defensive arms, made of iron, steel, brass, copper, or of any other material prepared and formed to make war by land or at sea. Amiicnn XXI. Goods not 00,,- All other merchandises and things not comprehended in the articles traband. of contraband explicitly enumerated and classified as above shall be ` held and considered as free, and subjects of free and lawful commerce, so that they be carried and transported in the freest manner by the citizens of both the contracting parties, even to places belonging to an eiienllyhcgcepting only those places which are at the time besieged 0i' oc a e .