1138 TREATIES Chapter III.-Life- saving appliancesetc. CHAPTER III. -L I FE-SAVING APPLIANCES, &c. ARTICLE 11. Interpretation. " New ship." "Short international voyage." "Buoyant appara- tus." Application. New mechanically- propelled passenger ships on international voyages. Short international voyages. Exemptions. Provisions for secur- ing compliance with requirements. Exemptions. Interpretation. For the purposes of this Chapter- (a) the expression "new ship" means a ship the keel of which is laid on or after the 1st July, 1931, all other ships being described as existing ships; (b) the expression "short international voyage" means an inter- national voyage in the course of which a ship is not more than 200 miles from the nearest land; (c) the expression "buoyant apparatus" means buoyant deck seats, or buoyant deck chairs, or any other buoyant apparatus excepting boats, life-buoys and life-jackets. ARTICLE 12. Application. 1. This Chapter, except where it is otherwise expressly provided, applies to new passenger ships which are mechanically propelled and engaged on international voyages. 2. Special provisions are laid down in Articles 13, 14, 19 and 25 with regard to new passenger ships engaged on short international voyages. 3. Each Administration, if it considers that the route and the con- ditions of the voyage are such as to render the application of the full requirements of this Chapter unreasonable or unnecessary, may to that extent exempt from the requirements of this Chapter individual ships or classes of ships belonging to its country which, in the course of their voyage, do not go more than 20 miles from the nearest land. 4. In the case of existing passenger ships which are mechanically propelled and engaged on international voyages and which do not already comply with the provisions of this Chapter relating to new passenger ships, the arrangements on each ship shall be considered by the Administration of the country to which the ship belongs, with a view to securing, so far as this is practicable and reasonable, com- pliance with the general principles set out in Article 13 not later than the 1st July, 1931, and substantial compliance with the other require- ments of this Chapter. 5. In the case of passenger ships which are mechanically propelled and engaged on international voyages and which are employed in the carriage of large numbers of unberthed passengers in special trades, such, for example, as the pilgrim trade, an Administration, if satisfied that it is impracticable to enforce compliance with the requirements of this Chapter, may exempt such ships, when they belong to its country, from those requirements on the following conditions:- (a.) That the fullest provision which the circumstances of the trade will permit shall be made in the matter of lifeboats and other life- saving appliances and fire protection.