94 STAT. 558
PUBLIC LAW 96-283—JUNE 28, 1980
is necessary for the reasons set forth in section 106(a)(2)(B) or the Administrator determines that immediate suspension of activities is necessary to prevent a significant adverse effect on the environment or to preserve the safety of life and property at sea, the Administrator is authorized, notwithstanding any other requirement of this Act, to issue an emergency order requiring any United States citizen who is engaged in exploration before the effective date of this Act to Judicial review, immediately suspend exploration activities. The issuance of such emergency order is subject to judicial review as provided in chapter 7 5 USC 701 et seq. ^f tj^ig 5^ United States Code. (3) The timely filing of any application for a license under paragraph (1)(A) shall entitle the applicant to priority of right for the issuance of such license under section 1030b). In any case in which more than one application referred to in paragraph (1) is filed based on exploration plans required by section 103(a)(2) which refer to all or part of the same deep seabed area, the Administrator shall, in taking action on such applications, apply principles of equity which take into consideration, among other things, the date on which the applicants or predecessors in interest, or component organizations thereof, commenced exploration activities and the continuity and extent of such exploration and amount of funds expended with respect to such exploration. (c) INTERFERENCE.—No United States citizen may interfere or participate in interference with any activity conducted by any licensee or permittee which is authorized to be undertaken under a license or permit issued by the United States to the licensee or permittee under this Act or with any activity conducted by the holder of, and authorized to be undertaken under, a license or permit or equivalent authorization issued by a reciprocating state for the exploration or commercial recovery of hard mineral resources. United States citizens shall exercise their rights on the high seas with reasonable regard for the interests of other states in their exercise of the freedoms of the high seas. 30 USC 1412.
SEC. 102. LICENSES FOR EXPLORATION AND PERMITS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY. (a) AUTHORITY TO ISSUE.—Subject to the provisions of this Act, the
Administrator shall issue to applicants who are eligible therefor licenses for exploration and permits for commercial recovery. (b) NATURE OF LICENSES AND PERMITS.—(1) A license or permit issued under this title shall authorize the holder thereof to engage in exploration or commercial recovery, as the case may be, consistent with the provisions of this Act, the regulations issued by the Administrator to implement the provisions of this Act, and the specific terms, conditions, and restrictions applied to the license or permit by the Administrator. (2) Any license or permit issued under this title shall be exclusive with respect to the holder thereof as against any other United States citizen or any citizen* national or governmental agency of, or any legal entity organized or existing under the laws of, any reciprocating state. (3) A valid existing license shall entitle the holder, if otherwise eligible under the provisions of this Act and regulations issued under this Act, to a permit for commercial recovery. Such a permit recognizes the right of the holder to recover hard mineral resources, and to own, transport, use, and sell hard mineral resources recovered, under the permit and in accordance with the requirements of this Act.