Page:Wittengenstein - Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 1922.djvu/14

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if you are going to assert a relation between the two men it will be necessary that the sentence in which you make the assertion shall establish a relation between the two names. If we say "Plato loves Socrates," the word "loves" which occurs between the word "Plato" and the word "Socrates" establishes a certain relation between these two words, and it is owing to this fact that our sentence is able to assert a relation between the person's name by the words "Plato" and "Socrates." "We must not say, the complex sign ‘aRb‘ says ‘a‘ stands in a certain relation R to b‘; but we must say, that ’a‘ stands in a certain relation to ‘b' says that a R b" (3.1432).

Mr Wittgenstein begins his theory of Symbolism with the statement (2.1): "We make to ourselves pictures of facts." A picture, he says, is a model of the reality, and to the objects in the reality correspond the elements of the picture: the picture itself is a fact. The fact that things have a certain relation to each other is represented by the fact that in the picture its elements have a certain relation to one another. "In the picture and the pictured there must be something identical in order that the one can be a picture of the other at all. What the picture must have in common with reality in order to be able to represent it after its manner—rightly or falsely—is its form of representation" (2. 161, 2.17).

We speak of a logical picture of a reality when we wish to imply only so much resemblance as is essential to its being a picture in any sense, that is to say, when we wish to imply no more than identity of logical form. The logical picture of a fact, he says, is a Gedanke, A picture can correspond or not correspond with the fact and be accordingly true or false, but in both cases it shares the logical form with the fact. The sense in which he speaks of pictures is illustrated by his statement: "The gramophone record, the musical thought, the score, the waves of sound, all stand to one another in that pictorial internal relation which holds between language and the world. To all of