philosopher, Asher Ginzberg, known as 'Ahad Ha'am' ('one of the people'), has, since 1889, suggested a rather more idealistic solution. Palestine, as a home for Jews, must also be a new moral centre for spiritual inspiration and guidance. His views have been adopted by large numbers of the Zionists themselves; and, indeed, he would probably now describe himself as a Zionist, though he does not see eye to eye with the bulk of the modern leaders of Zionism.
The Russian movement, 'Chovevi Zion' ('Lovers of Zion'), was undoubtedly inspired by Pinsker and Ginzberg, and gathered momentum and force in Odessa and southern Russia and the pale of Jewish settlement, whence it spread to western Europe.
In England it acquired considerable importance by reason of the position of its adherents and the enthusiasm of its chief, Col. A. E. Goldsmid. Its constitution was drafted by E. N. Adler and settled by the Right Hon. Arthur Cohen, Q.C., a nephew of Sir Moses Montefiore. Its objects were expressed to be:
- (a) To foster the national ideal in Israel.
- (b) To promote colonization of Palestine and neighbouring territories by Jews, by establishing new colonies, or assisting those already established.
- (c) To diffuse the knowledge of Hebrew as a living language.
- (d) To further the moral and material status of Israel.
Its organization took a somewhat military form, being governed by 'Head-quarters Tent' and various Local Tents in the metropolis, provinces, and colonies. The Head-quarters Tent was presided over by a Chief and each Local Tent by a Commander. For some years it published a quarterly magazine, Palestine, edited by Dr. S. A. Hirsch. In 1892 it began to purchase land in Palestine; but its international action was in the hands of a Central Committee at Paris, a Committee in Odessa, and an ofﬁce at Jaffa for the purchase and sale of land and negotiation with the Turkish authorities for facilitating Jewish colonization. 'Chovevi Zion', though in the year 1897 it was administering half a dozen colonies, building agricultural dwellings,