Separate Union, consisting of not less than 3,000 members. These Federations and Separate Unions are responsible to head-quarters for administrative work, e. g. distribution and collection of the shekels, arrangement of elections. reception of leaders and arrangement of propaganda tours, and publication of Zionist literature in the language of the country. Among the more important Separate Unions are the 'Mizrahi', strictly observant Zionists, the 'Poáli Zion', who are Socialists as well as Zionists, and two bodies of Zionist working men united in friendly and benefit societies the Order of Ancient Maccabeans in England and the Order of Knights of Zion in America.
This Organization has been in existence since the ﬁrst Congress in 1897, and many improvements have been effected at later Congresses. As a form for the general body of Zionist workers it is excellent, but its extent has never fulfilled the hopes or expectations of its founder Herzl. He tried to bind together the whole of Jewry in the Organization, but unfortunately Jewry was. and still is, to a large extent only nominally one people. The fragments in the different countries still consider themselves more or less independent of all other fragments. English Jews, speaking generally. are more English than Jews, and refuse to become members of any other semi-political organization. They have their votes as British citizens. Their 'Jewishness' can find sufficient scope in a limited religious observance, and they cannot see any reason to become adherents of the Zionist Organization.
Apart from the active group of Zionist leaders who carry on the Herzl tradition and the Basle programme of practical politics. the 'Mizrahists' represent the religious element in Zionism as opposed to the secularist and Socialist 'Poáli Zion'. Nearly all the Zionists of Holland, all the Russian Rabbis, probably a majority of the Russian Zionists, and many of those of Germany (especially Frankfurt) belong to the former group.
- See Zionism: its Organization. and Institutions, by S. Landman. (London. 1915.)