Percy, Henry (1272?-1315) (DNB00)

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PERCY, HENRY, first Baron Percy of Alnwick (1272?–1315), was third son of Henry Percy, seventh baron by tenure. Henry Percy (1228?–1272) was eldest son of William Percy, sixth baron [q. v.], by Elena, daughter of Ingelram de Baliol, and had livery of his lands in 1249. He was summoned for service in Wales in 1257, and in Scotland in 1258. During the barons' war he at first sided with the barons, but afterwards joined the king. He fought for Henry at Northampton on 6 April 1264, and at Lewes on 14 May, where he was taken prisoner (Rishanger, Chron. pp. 21, 28). He died in 1272, having married, in September 1268, Eleanor, elder daughter of John, earl of Warrenne (Cont. Will. Newb. ap. Chron. Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I, ii. 554, Rolls Ser.), by whom he had three sons, of whom the two elder died soon after their father.

Henry, the third son, and tenth baron by tenure, must have been an infant at his father's death. He was returned in 1287 as a minor, but seven years later, being of full age, was summoned for the war in Gascony, and in 1299, being then over twenty-six years of age, was returned as heir of Ingelram de Baliol (Roberts, Calendarium Genealogicum, ii. 567). Percy's first active employment was in March 1296, when he accompanied Edward into Scotland, was knighted by the king before Berwick, and was present at the battle of Dunbar. On 8 Sept. in the same year he was appointed warden of Galloway and of the castles of Ayr, Wigton, Crugleton, and Botel (Stevenson, ii. 100, 110). In 1297 Percy was employed in the marches, having his headquarters at Carlisle (ib. ii. 170–3, 186, &c.). In June he and Robert de Clifford (1273–1314) [q. v.] collected their forces in Cumberland and invaded Annandale. They advanced first to Ayr and afterwards to Irvine, where they received the submission early in July of the bishop of Glasgow, Robert de Bruce, earl of Carrick, and James the Steward (ib. ii. 192–4; Hemingburgh, ii. 132–3). In September Percy brought up a large force to reinforce Hugh Cressingham [q. v.] at Stirling, but by Cressingham's orders withdrew, and so was not present at the battle (ib. ii. 137). He was present at the parliament held at York in January 1298 (ib. ii. 156), and in this and the following year served in Scotland. In December 1298 he received 769l. 3s. 4d. as pay for three months' service with fifty barbed horse (Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, ii. 1044). In July 1300 he was present with his grandfather at the siege of Carlaverock Castle (Nicolas, Siege of Car- laverock, p. 14). On 12 Feb. 1301 he was present at the parliament of Lincoln, and signed the letter of the barons to the pope as ‘Dominus de Topclive’ (Chron. Edw. I and Edw. II, i. 122). In January 1303 he was summoned to serve in Scotland (Fœdera, i. 948). At the close of the year he was with Edward at Dunfermline (Palgrave, i. 263). Early in 1304 he had a grant of the lands of the Earl of Buchan, and in February was with the Prince of Wales at Perth (Cal. Doc. Scotland, ii. No. 1487 and p. 393). Later on in the year he served at the siege of Stirling (Palgrave, i. 267). In April 1305 he was present at the parliament at Westminster, but in August was again in Scotland, and in 1306 was employed against Robert Bruce as the king's lieutenant in Galloway. He had charge of Carlaverock Castle in May, and on 19 June was present at the defeat of Bruce near Perth. In September he made a foray in Carrick and Ayr, during which he was surprised and besieged by Bruce at Turnberry Castle in Carrick (ib. iv. 389–91; Barbour, Bruce, bks. iv. and v.; Chron. de Melsa, ii. 277; Hemingburgh, ii. 247). In the early part of 1307 he was still employed in Scotland as one of the three wardens (ib. ii. 265), and after the accession of Edward II was again ordered to repair to Scotland on 18 Oct. (Fœdera, ii. 9). He was summoned to Edward's coronation in January 1308, and was with the king at Windsor in June (ib. ii. 27, 50).

During the next few years he was summoned to various parliaments, and also was employed in Scotland. He joined in the Stamford letter of the barons to the pope on 9 Aug. 1309, and the petition for the ordainers on 17 March 1310 (Chron. Edw. I and Edw. II, i. 162, 170). In March 1311 he had custody of the bishopric of Durham (Reg. Pal. Dunelm. iv. 82–4; Fœdera, ii. 131). The ordainers had appointed him justice of the forests beyond Trent and warden of Scarborough Castle. In February 1312 he refused to surrender Scarborough to William Latimer, for which offence he was summoned by the king to York on 6 March, and arraigned before the council, but, after a short interval, pardoned (Parl. Writs, iv. 1276). On 12 April the king bestowed the justiceship of the forests on Piers Gaveston (Fœdera, ii. 163). After this Percy openly joined Thomas of Lancaster, and was appointed to guard the marches against Gaveston and prevent any intrigue with Bruce (Chron. Edw. I and Edw. II, i. 204). Having collected a large force, he occupied Newcastle on 4 May, and then marched south to join the Earls of Warrenne and Pembroke in the siege of Scarborough ten days later (ib. i. 204–5, ii. 42–3; Parl. Writs, iv. 1276). His lands were taken into the king's hands in June, but restored on 18 Dec. under surety from the Earl of Hereford, and eventually, on 16 Oct. 1313, Percy obtained pardon for his share in the disturbances (id. ib.; Fœdera, ii. 173, 230). He was summoned to the Scottish war next year, and was present at Bannockburn. He died in 1315, and was buried at Fountains Abbey before the high altar. He had been regularly summoned to parliament from 6 Feb. 1299 to 29 July 1314. In 1309 he had purchased Alnwick and other lands in Northumberland from Antony Bek, bishop of Durham (ib. ii. 96, 99, 102; Scalachronica, p. 119), and thus became the virtual founder of the historic house of Percy, which had up to this time been chiefly connected with Yorkshire. The chronicle of Alnwick describes him as pre-eminent for skill in tournaments, and more famous and powerful than any of his ancestors (Fonblanque, i. 70–1). Percy married Eleanor, apparently a daughter of John Fitzalan III [see under Fitzalan, John, II], by whom he had two sons, Henry (1299?–1352), his successor, who is noticed separately, and William (d. 1355). The arms which he bore at Carlaverock were ‘or, a lion rampant azure.’

[Rishanger's Chronicle, Chronicles of Edward I and Edward II, Chron. de Melsa, Reg. Palatinum Dunelmense (all in Rolls Ser.); Hemingburgh's Chronicle (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Trivet's Annals (ib.); Barbour's Bruce (Scottish Text Soc.); Stevenson's Documents illustrating the History of Scotland (Chron. and Memorials of Scotland); Bain's Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland; Calendars of Close and Patent Rolls, Edward II, Rymer's Fœdera (Record edit.); Rolls of Parliament; Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs and Documents illustrative of the History of Scotland; De Fonblanque's Annals of the House of Percy, i. 50–71; Nicolas's Siege of Carlaverock, pp. 136–41; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 272; Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, ii. 237–41; Burton's History of Scotland, ii. 286–289, 357, 362.]

C. L. K.