Principles of Political Economy (Malthus)
PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY
CONSIDERED WITH A VIEW TO THEIR PRACTICAL APPLICATION
REV. T. R. MALTHUS, M.A. F.R.S.
PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY IN THE EAST INDIA COLLEGE HERTFORDSHIRE
SECOND EDITION WITH CONSIDERABLE ADDITIONS FROM THE AUTHOR'S OWN MANUSCRIPT AND AN ORIGINAL MEMOIR
C. WHITTINGHAM, TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE.
Chapter I.—Of the Definitions of Wealth and of Productive Labour
Chapter II.—On the Nature, Causes, and Measures of Value
Chapter III.—Of the Rent of Land
Chapter IV. — Of the Wages of Labour 217 » § 1. On the Definition of the Wages of Labour, and their Dependance upon Supply and Demand. . 217 2. Of the Causes which principally affect the Habits of the Labouring Classes 223 3. Of the Causes which principally influence the De- mand for Labour, and the Increase of the Po- pulation 231 4. A Review of the Corn Wages of Labour from the Reign of Edward III 240 5. On the Conclusions to be drawn from the pre- ceding Review of the Prices of Corn and Labour during the five last Centuries 252 Chapter V. — Of the Profits of Capital 262
they are estimated 262 2. Of the limiting Principle of Profits 271 3. Of the regulating Principle of Profits 276 4. Of Profits as affected by the Causes practically in operation , , 282 ^^. Remarks on Mr. Ricardo's Theory of Profits 291 Chapter VI. — Of the Distinction between Wealth AND Value 299 BOOK II. Chapter I. — On the Progress of Wealth 309 ^ 1. Statement of tlie particular Object of Inquiry 309 2. Of the Increase of Population considered as "a Sti- mulus to the continued Increase of Wealth . . 311 3. Of Accumulation, or the Saving from Revenue to add to Capital, considered as a Stimulus to the Increase of ^Vealth 314 4. Of the Fertility of the Soil, considered as the Sti- mulus to the continued Increase of Wealth . . 331 CONTENTS. V Page ^ 5. Of Inventions to save Labour, considered as a Stimulus to the continued Increase of Wealth.. 351 i6. jOf the Necessity of a Union of the Powers of Pro- duction with the Means of Distribution, in order to ensure a continued Increase of Wealth .... 361 7. Of the Distribution occasioned by the Division of landed Property considered as the Means of in- creasing the exchangeable Value of the whole Produce 372 8. Of the Distribution occasioned by Commerce, in- ternal and external, considered as the Means of increasing the exchangeable Value of Pro- duce 382 9. Of the Distribution occasioned by personal services and unproductive Consumers, considered as the Means of increasing the exchangeable Value of the whole Produce 398 10. Application of some of the preceding Principles to the Distresses of the Labouring Classes since 1815, with General Observations 413 Index 439
PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY.