Reichenau Glosses

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Manuscript of Karlsruhe 115[edit]

Words that are to replace the corresponding Classical Latin words in French[edit]

  • onustus pro carcatus (carricatus, Cf. Old French ‘‘chargié’‘)
  • binas pro duas et duas (Cf. French ‘‘deux et deux, deux à deux’‘)
  • profectus pro alatus factus
  • transgredere pro ultra alare
  • opilio pro custos ovium vel berbicarius
  • aper pro salvaticus porcus
  • fusiles pro fundutas (Cf. French ‘‘fondues’‘)
  • gecor (jecur’‘) pro ficato (ficatum; Cf. Old French ‘‘feie, foie’‘)
  • offendas pro abatas (Cf. Old French ‘‘abates af’‘)
  • oves pro berbices (verveces; Cf. French ‘‘brebis’‘)
  • mares pro masculi (Cf. French ‘‘mâles’‘)
  • oppidis pro castellis vel civitatibus (Cf. French ‘‘châteaux, cités’‘)
  • hiems pro hibernus (Cf. French ‘‘hiver’‘)
  • forum pro mercatum (Cf. French ‘‘marché’‘)
  • emit pro comparavit (Cf. Old French ‘‘comparer to buy’‘)
  • mercator pro comparator
  • femur pro coxa (Cf. French ‘‘cuisse’‘)
  • arena pro sabulo (Cf. French ‘‘sable’‘)
  • cecinit pro cantavit (Cf. French ‘‘chanta’‘)
  • canere pro cantare (Cf. French ‘‘chanter’‘)
  • si vis pro si voles (Cf. French ‘‘si [tu] veux’‘)
  • pallium pro drappum (Cf. French ‘‘drap’’, of Gaulish origin)
  • lamento pro ploro (Cf. French ‘‘pleurer’‘)
  • liberos pro infantes (Cf. French ‘‘enfants’‘)
  • ictus pro colpus (Cf. French ‘‘coup’’, of Greek origin)
  • ensis pro gladius (Cf. French ‘‘glaive’‘)
  • uvas pro racemos (Cf. French ‘‘raisins’‘)
  • sortilegus pro sorcerus (Cf. French ‘‘sorcier’‘)
  • tedet pro anoget (inodiat, Cf. French ‘‘ennuie’‘)
  • viscera pro intralia (Cf. French ‘‘entrailles’‘)
  • vespertiliones calvas sorices (Cf. French ‘‘chauves-souris’‘)
  • coturnix pro quaccola (Cf. French ‘‘caille’‘)

Words implying a series of analogies[edit]

  • singulariter pro solamente (Cf. French ‘‘seulement’‘): -mente is already used as an adverbial suffix
  • optimos pro meliores (Cf. French ‘‘meilleurs’‘)
  • saniore pro plus sano (Cf. French ‘‘plus sain’‘)
  • transmeare pro transnotare (transnatare): the developping substitution of â by o is observed (as Latin natale > French ‘‘noël’‘)

Germanic loanwords[edit]

  • pignus pro wadius (Cf. French ‘‘gage’‘)
  • respectant pro rewardant (Cf. French ‘‘regardent’‘)
  • Italia pro Longobardia (Cf. French ‘‘Lombardie’‘)
  • Gallia pro Francia (Cf. French ‘‘France’‘)
  • turmas pro fulcos (Cf. French ‘‘foule’‘)
  • caementariis pro mationibus (Cf. French ‘‘maçons’‘)
  • non pepercit pro non sparniavit (Cf. French ‘‘épargner’‘)
  • galea pro helme (Cf. French ‘‘heaume’‘)

Words with new meanings[edit]

  • ager pro campus (Cf. French ‘‘champ’‘)
  • cenacula pro mansiuncula (Cf. French ‘‘maison’‘)
  • caseum pro formaticum (Cf. French ‘‘fromage’‘)
  • castro pro heribergo (Cf. French ‘‘hébergement’‘)
  • contemeliam pro verecundiam (Cf. French ‘‘vergogne’‘)
  • cuncti pro omnes
  • destestare pro plasphemare (Cf. French ‘‘blâmer’‘)
  • fatigatus pro lassus (Cf. French ‘‘las’‘)
  • ferus pro durus (Cf. French ‘‘dur’‘)
  • flare pro suflare (Cf. French ‘‘souffler’‘)
  • gehenna pro duplex pena
  • gratis pro sine mercede
  • in ore pro in bucca (Cf. French ‘‘bouche’’ “mouth”)
  • rostrum pro beccus (Cf. French ‘‘bec’’ “beak”)
  • isset pro ambulasset (Cf. French ‘‘aller’’ (?) “to go”)
  • ita pro sic (Cf. French ‘‘si ’‘)
  • jus pro legem vel potestatem
  • milites pro servientes (Cf. French ‘‘sergents’‘)
  • nonnulli pro multi (Cf. French ‘‘moult’‘)
  • pronus pro qui ad dentes iacet
  • promptus pro paratus (Cf. French ‘‘préparé’‘)
  • pulcra pro bella (Cf. French ‘‘belle’‘)
  • rerum pro causarum (Cf. French ‘‘choses’‘)
  • ruga pro fruncetura (ruga means already “street”)
  • scurris pro ioculator (Cf. French ‘‘joueur’‘)
  • saga pro cortina
  • sagma pro soma vel sella (Cf. French ‘‘selle’‘)
  • semel pro una vice (Cf. French ‘‘fois’‘)
  • sopor pro sumpnus (Cf. French ‘‘sommeil’‘)
  • umo pro terra (Cf. French ‘‘terre’‘)
  • vegitat pro portat
  • vitiosior pro callidior (vitium takes the meaning of trick, guile, as in the Modern French expression ‘’avoir du vice’’ = ‘’être rusé’‘)
  • vectum (<vectem) pro tinel (tinalum) (in order to be distinguished from the new meaning of ‘’vit’‘)

Manuscript of Karlsruhe 86[edit]

  • cartallum pro fiscellum paner (Cf. French ‘‘panier’‘)
  • clivium pro montania (Cf. French ‘‘montagne’‘)
  • coccinus pro rubeus (Cf. French ‘‘rouge’‘)
  • colera pro nausia (Cf. French ‘‘noise’‘)
  • corcodrillus pro bestia in flumine similis lacerte
  • furvus (fulvus) pro brunus (Cf. French ‘‘brun’’, of Germanic origin)
  • lebes pro chaldaria (Cf. French ‘‘chaudière’‘)
  • necetur pro occidetur (Cf. Old French ‘‘occire’’ “to kill”)
  • noverca pro matrasta (Cf. French ‘‘marâtre’‘)
  • pingues pro grassi (form of ‘’crassi’‘; cf. French ‘’gras’‘)
  • problesma pro parabula (Cf. French ‘‘parole’‘)
  • sarcinulas pro saomas
  • stratoria pro lectaria (Cf. French ‘‘litière’‘)
  • subtilissima pro perpititta (Cf. French ‘‘petit’’ (?) “small, little”)
  • ungues pro ungulas (Cf. French ‘‘ongles’‘)
  • vausia pro vomitus
  • vim pro fortiam (Cf. French ‘‘force’‘)

Formulæ Andecavenses[edit]

  • ablata pro*blada (Cf. French ‘‘moisson’‘) (n°22)
  • curare pro soniare (n°58)
  • ducta pro menata (Cf. French ‘‘menée’‘) (n°24)
  • vestis pro rauba (Cf. French ‘‘robe’‘) (n°29)