Sex and Character/Contents

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
 

CONTENTS

 
Page
Author's Preface to the First German Edition
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
ix
 

FIRST OR PREPARATORY PART

SEXUAL COMPLEXITY

Introduction
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
1

On the development of general conceptions—Male and female—Contradictions—Transitional forms—Anatomy and natural endowment—Uncertainty of anatomy

 

CHAPTER I

Males and Females
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
5

Embryonic neutral condition—Rudiments in the adult—Degrees of "gonochorism"—Principle of intermediate forms—Male and female—Need for typical conceptions—Resumé—Early anticipations

CHAPTER II

Male and Female Plasmas
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
11

Position of sexuality—Steenstrup's view adopted—Sexual characters—Internal secretions—Idioplasm—Arrhenoplasm—Thelyplasm—Variations—Proofs from the effects of castration—Transplantation and transfusion—Organotherapy—Individual differences between cells—Origin of intermediate sexual conditions—Brain—Excess of male births—Determination of sex—Comparative pathology

CHAPTER III

Page
The Laws of Sexual Attraction
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
26

Sexual preference—Probability of these being controlled by a law—First formula—First interpretation—Proofs—Hetero­stylism—Interpretation of heterostylism—Animal kingdom—Further laws—Second formula—Chemotaxis—Resemblances and differences—Goethe, "elective affinities—Marriage and free love—Effects on progeny

 

CHAPTER IV

Homo-sexuality and Pederasty
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
45

Homo-sexuals as intermediate forms—Inborn or acquired, healthy or diseased?—A special instance of the law of attraction—All men have the rudiments of homo-sexuality—Friendship and sexuality—Animals—Failure of medical treatment—Homo-sexuality, punishment and ethics—Distinction between homo-sexuality and pederasty

 

CHAPTER V

The Science of Character and the Science of Form
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
53

Principle of sexually intermediate forms as fundamental principle of the psychology of individuals—Simultaneity or periodicity?—Methods of psychological investigation—Examples—Individualised education—Conventionalising—Parallelism between morphology and characterology—Physiognomy and the principles of psycho-physics—Method of the doctrine of variation—A new way of stating the problem—Deductive morphology—Correlation—Outlook

 

CHAPTER VI

Emancipated Women
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
64

The woman question—Claim for emancipation and maleness—Emancipation and homo-sexuality—Sexual preferences of emancipated women—Physiognomy of emancipated women—Other celebrated women—Femaleness and emancipation—

Page

Practical rules—Genius essentially male—Movements of women in historical times—Periodicity—Biology and the conception of history—Outlook of the woman movement—Its fundamental error

SECOND OR PRINCIPAL PART

THE SEXUAL TYPES

CHAPTER I

Man and Woman
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
79

Bisexuality and unisexuality—Man or woman, male or female—Fundamental difficulty in characterology—Experiment, analysis of sensation and psychology—Dilthey—Conception of empirical character—What is and what is not the object of psychology—Character and individuality—Problem of characterology and the problem of the sexes

 

CHAPTER II

Male and Female Sexuality
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
85

The problem of a female psychology—Man as the interpreter of female psychology—Differences in the sexual impulse—The absorbing and liberating factors—Intensity and activity—Sexual irritability of women—Larger field of the sexual life in woman—Local differences in the perception of sexuality—Local and periodical cessation of male sexuality—Differences in the degrees of consciousness of sexuality

 

CHAPTER III

Male and Female Consciousness
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
93

Sensation and feeling—Avenarius' division into "element" and "character." These inseparable at the earliest stage—Process of "clarification"—Presentiments—Grades of understanding—Forgetting—Paths and organisation—Conception of "henids"—The henid as the simplest, psychical datum—Sexual differences in the organisation of the contents of

 
Page

the mind—Sensibility—Certainty of judgment—Developed consciousness as a male character

 

CHAPTER IV

Talent and Genius
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
103

Genius and talent—Genius and giftedness—Methods—Comprehension of many men—What is meant by comprehending men—Great complexity of genius—Periods in psychic life—No disparagement of famous men—Understanding and noticing—Universal consciousness of genius—Greatest distance from the henid stage—A higher grade of maleness—Genius always universal—The female devoid of genius or of hero-worship—Giftedness and sex

 

CHAPTER V

Talent and Memory
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
114

Organisation and the power of reproducing thoughts—Memory of experiences a sign of genius—Remarks and conclusions—Remembrance and apperception—Capacity for comparison and acquisition—Reasons for the masculinity of music, drawing and painting—Degrees of genius—Relation of genius to ordinary men—Autobiography—Fixed ideas—Remembrance of personal creations—Continuous and discontinuance memory—Continuity and piety—Past and present—Past and future—Desire for immortality—Existing psychological explanations—True origin—Inner development of man until death—Ontogenetic psychology or theoretical biography—Woman lacking in the desire for immortality—Further extension of relation of memory to genius—Memory and time—Postulate of timelessness—Value as a timeless quality—First law of the theory of value—Proofs—Individuation and duration constituents of value—Desire for immortality a special case—Desire for immortality in genius connected with timelessness, by his universal memory and the duration of his creations—Genius and history—Genius and nations—Genius and language—Men of action and men of science, not to be called men of genius—Philosophers, founders of religion and artists have genius

CHAPTER VI

Memory, Logic and Ethics
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
142

Psychology and "psychologismus"—Value of memory—Theory of memory—Doctrines of practice and of association—Confusion with recognition—Memory peculiar to man—Moral significance—Lies—Transition to logic—Memory and the principle of identity—Memory and the syllogism—Woman non-logical and non-ethical—Intellectual and moral knowledge—The intelligible ego

 

CHAPTER VII

Logic, Ethics and the Ego
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
153

Critics of the conception of the Ego—Hume: Lichtenberg, Mach—The ego of Mach and biology—Individuation and individuality—Logic and ethics as witnesses for the existence of the ego—Logic—Laws of identity and of contraries—Their use and significance—Logical axioms as the laws of essence—Kant and Fichte—Freedom of thought and freedom of the will—Ethics—Relation to logic—The psychology of the Kantian ethics—Kant and Nietzsche

 

CHAPTER VIII

The "I" Problem and Genius
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
163
Characterology and the belief in the "I"—Awakening of the ego—Jean Paul, Novalis, Schelling—The awakening of the ego and the view of the world—Self-consciousness and arrogance—The view of the genius to be more highly valued than that of other men—Final statements as to the idea of genius—The personality of the genius as the perfectly-conscious microcosm—The naturally-synthetic activity of genius—Significant and symbolical—Definition of the genius in relation to ordinary men—Universality as freedom—Morality or immorality of genius?—Duties towards self and others—What duty to another is—Criticism of moral sympathy and social ethics—Understanding of other men as the one require-
Page

ment of morality and knowledge—I and thou—Individualism and universalism—Morality only in monads—The man of greatest genius as the most moral man—Why man is ζῶον πολιτικον—Consciousness and morality—The great criminal Genius as duty and submission—Genius and crime—Genius and insanity—Man as his own creator

 

CHAPTER IX

Male and Female Psychology
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
186

Soullessness of woman—History of this knowledge—Woman devoid of genius—No masculine women in the true sense—The unconnectedness of woman's nature due to her want of an ego—Revision of the henid-theory—Female "thought" —Idea and object—Freedom of the object—Idea and judgment—Nature of judgment—Woman and truth as a criterion of thought—Woman and logic—Woman non-moral, not immoral—Woman and solitude—Womanly sympathy and modesty—The ego of women—Female vanity—Lack of true self-appreciation—Memory for compliments—Introspection and repentance—Justice and jealousy—Name and individuality—Radical difference between male and female mental life—Psychology with and without soul—Is psychology a science?—Soul and psychology—Problem of the influence of the psychical sexual characters of the male or the female

 

CHAPTER X

Motherhood and Prostitution
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
214
Special characterology of woman—Mother and prostitute—Relation of two types to the child—Woman polygamous—Analogies between motherhood and sexuality—Motherhood and the race—Maternal love ethically indifferent—The prostitute careless of the race—The prostitute, the criminal and the conqueror—Emperor and prostitute—Motive of the prostitute—Coitus an end in itself—Coquetry—The sensations of the woman in coitus in relation to the rest of her life—The prostitute as the enemy—The friend of life and its enemy—No prostitution amongst animals—Its origin a mystery
Page

CHAPTER XI

Erotics and Æsthetics
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
236

Women, and the hatred of women—Erotics and sexuality—Platonic love—The idea of love—Beauty of women—Relation to sexual impulse—Love and beauty—Difference between aesthetics, logic and ethics—Modes of love—Projection phenomena—Beauty and morality—Nature and ethics—Natural and artistic beauty—Sexual love as guilt—Hate, love and morality—Creation of the devil—Love and sympathy—Love and shyness—Love and vanity—Love of woman as a means to an end—Relation between the child and love, the child and sexuality—Love and murder—Madonna-worship—Madonna, a male idea, without basis in womanhood—Woman sexual, not erotic—Sense of beauty in women—How man acts on woman—The fate of the woman—Why man loves woman

 

CHAPTER XII

The Nature of Woman and Her Significance in the Universe
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
252
Meaning of womanhood—Instinct for pairing or matchmaking—Man, and matchmaking—High valuation of coitus—Individual sexual impulse, a special case—Womanhood as pairing or universal sexuality—Organic falseness of woman—Hysteria—Difference between man and beast, woman and man—The higher and lower life—Birth and death—Freedom and happiness—Happiness and man—Happiness and woman—Woman and the problem of existence—Non-existence of woman—Male and female friendship—Pairing identical with womanhood—Why women must be regarded as human—Contrast between subject—Object, matter, form, man, woman—Meaning of henids—Formation of woman by man—Significance of woman in the universe—Man as something, woman as nothing—Psychological problem of the fear of woman—Womanhood and crime—Creation of woman by man's crime—Woman as his own sexuality accepted by man—Woman as the guilt of man—What man's love of woman is, in its deepest significance
Page

CHAPTER XIII

Judaism
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
301

Differences amongst men—Intermediate forms and racial anthropology—Comparison of Judaism and femaleness—Judaism as an idea—Antisemitism—Richard Wagner—Similarities between Jews and women—Judaism in science—The Jew not a monad—The Jew and the Englishman—Natureof humour—Humourand satire—The Jewess—Deepest significance of Judaism—Want of faith—The Jew not non-mystical, yet impious—Want of earnestness, and pride—The Jew as opposed to the hero—Judaism and Christianity—Origin of Christianity—Problem of the founders of religion—Christ as the conqueror of the Judaism in Himself—The founders of religions as the greatest of men—Conquest of inherent Judaism necessary for all founders of religion—Judaism and the present time—Judaism, femaleness, culture and humanity

 

CHAPTER XIV

Woman and Mankind
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
331

The idea of humanity, and woman as the match-maker—Goethe-worship—Womanising of man—Virginity and purity—Male origin of these ideas—Failure of woman to understand the erotic—Woman's relation to sexuality—Coitus and love—Woman as the enemy of her own emancipation—Asceticism immoral—Sexual impulse as a want of respect—Problem of the Jew—Problem of the woman—Problem of slavery—Moral relation to women—Man as the opponent of emancipation—Ethical postulates—Two possibilities—The problem of women as the problem of humanity—Subjection of women—Persistence or disappearance of the human race—True ground of the immorality of the sexual impulse—Earthly paternity—Inclusion of women in the conception of humanity—The mother and the education of the human race—Last questions

 
Index
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
351