The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Middlesex (United States)

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MIDDLESEX. I. A N. E. county of Massachusetts, bordering on New Hampshire, bounded S. E. by the Charles river and drained by the Merrimack, Nashua, and Concord rivers, and other streams; area, 888 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 274,353. The immense water power supplied by a number of streams is largely employed in manufactures. Several railroads intersect the county. The chief productions in 1870 were 20,350 bushels of rye, 190,965 of Indian corn, 56,302 of oats, 14,880 of barley, 443,099 of potatoes, 520,136 lbs. of butter, and 74,678 tons of hay. There were on farms 5,836 horses, 16,887 milch cows, 2,107 working oxen, 7,260 other cattle, 983 sheep, and 8,104 swine. The total number of manufacturing establishments was 1,878, employing $43,528,466 capital, and having an annual product of $113,147,270. The chief establishments were 7 for bleaching and dyeing, 154 manufactories of boots and shoes, 15 of boot and shoe findings, 2 of carpets, 54 of men's clothing, 20 of cotton goods, 6 of drugs and chemicals, 21 of flouring mill products, 50 of furniture, 5 of glassware, 15 of hardware, 7 of hosiery, 5 of India-rubber and elastic goods, 21 of iron in various forms, 70 of leather, 3 of liquors, 48 of lumber, 52 of machinery, 25 of soap and candles, 6 of straw goods, 55 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 1 of watches, 22 of woollen goods, 12 of worsted goods, and 4 cotton and woollen print works. Capitals, Cambridge and Lowell. II. A S. county of Connecticut, bordering on Long Island sound and intersected by the Connecticut river, which also forms a part of the E. boundary; area, about 430 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 35,722. The surface is somewhat uneven, and the soil generally fertile. Several streams furnish water power. The New Haven and New London railroad passes through the S. part. The chief productions in 1870 were 5,841 bushels of wheat, 17,101 of rye, 85,451 of Indian corn, 40,352 of oats, 176,231 of potatoes, 609,327 lbs. of tobacco, 13,644 of wool, 404,620 of butter, 39,882 tons of hay, and 2,035 gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 1,838 horses, 5,031 milch cows, 3,938 working oxen, 5,502 other cattle, 4,735 sheep, and 2,869 swine. In 1870 the county contained 429 manufacturing establishments, employing 4,503 hands, and having a capital of $4,614,630, and an annual product of $7,719,537. The principal manufactories were 2 of agricultural implements, 10 of bells, 10 of men's clothing, 17 of cotton goods, 2 of edge tools and axes, 28 of hardware, 3 of hooks and eyes, 9 of iron castings, 4 of turned ivory, 2 of musical instruments, 3 of printing paper, 8 of plated ware, 1 of pumps, 2 of sewing machines, 12 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 1 of washing machines, 4 ship yards, 11 flour mills, and 13 saw mills. Capitals, Middletown and Haddam. III. A central county of New Jersey, intersected by the Raritan river and bounded E. by Raritan bay and Staten Island sound; area, 399 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 45,029. The surface is level toward the S. E. and undulating in the N. and N. E.; and the soil, which varies from a light sand to a deep clay, is generally fertile. It is intersected by the Camden and Amboy, the New Jersey, and the Freehold and Jamesburg railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 106,158 bushels of wheat, 15,967 of rye, 423,843 of Indian corn, 271,332 of oats, 248,830 of Irish and 12,391 of sweet potatoes, 418,434 lbs. of butter, and 37,160 tons of hay. There were 4,888 horses, 6,135 milch cows, 3,728 other cattle, 3,449 sheep, and 6,453 swine; 32 manufactories of brick, 1 of freight and passenger cars, 1 of drugs and chemicals, 3 of India-rubber and elastic goods, 2 of iron castings, 1 of paper hangings, 3 of sash, doors, and blinds, 2 of stone and earthen ware, 12 flour mills, 4 saw mills, 5 tanneries, 8 distilleries, 4 ship yards, and 1 cork-cutting establishment. Capital, New Brunswick. IV. An E. county of Virginia, bordering on Chesapeake bay, at the mouth of the Rappahannock river, which forms its N. E. boundary, and bounded S. W. by the Piancotank river; area, 170 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,981, of whom 2,522 were colored. The chief productions in 1870 were 19,650 bushels of wheat, 86,967 of Indian corn, 11,420 of oats, and 13,754 Ibs. of butter. There were 426 horses, 777 milch cows, 1,189 other cattle, 1,277 sheep, and 2,810 swine. Capital, Saluda.