# The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Ohm, Georg Simon

**OHM. I. Georg Simon,** a German physicist,
born in Erlangen, March 16, 1787, died in
Munich, July 7, 1854. He was the son of a
locksmith, and in his boyhood worked in his
father's shop. He studied at Erlangen, taught
mathematics in various places, and in 1817 was
appointed professor in the Jesuit college in
Cologne. In 1818 he published a work on the
elements of geometry. He devoted himself
particularly to the investigation of the laws
governing galvanic currents, and by a
combination of mathematical and experimental
investigation, carried on for many years, he
at length discovered and established the law
which forms the basis of the mathematical
theory of electricity. (See Galvanism.) His
discoveries were first announced in 1825-'6 in
scientific journals, and more completely in his
*Die galvanische Kette, mathematisch bearbeitet*
(Berlin, 1827; translated into English in
Taylor's “Scientific Memoirs,” vol. xi., London,
1841). The fundamental theorem of his
doctrine is known as “Ohm's law.” In 1826 he
resigned his professorship, and was director
of the polytechnic school in Nuremberg from
1833 to 1849, when he was appointed professor
of physics at Munich. In 1841 the royal
society of London conferred upon him the
Copley medal. He also published *Elemente der*
*analytischen Geometrie* (Nuremberg, 1849),
*Grundzüge der Physik* (1854), and other works.
**II. Martin**, a German mathematician, brother of
the preceding, born in Erlangen, May 6, 1792,
died in Berlin, April 1, 1872. He studied at
the university of Berlin, and in 1817 was
appointed professor of mathematics and physics
in the gymnasium at Thorn. In 1821 he
removed to Berlin, and in 1839 became a full
professor in the university. He delivered
courses of lectures at the academy of architecture
from 1824 to 1831, and at the schools of
artillery and engineering from 1833 to 1852;
and he also taught in the military school from
1826 to 1849. He published *Versuch eines*
*vollkommen consequenten Systems der Mathematik*
(9 vols., Nuremberg, 1822-'52); *Lehrbuch*
*der Mechanik* (3 vols., Berlin, 1836-'8);
*Geist der mathematischen Analysis* (2 parts,
1842-'5; the first part translated into English
by A. J. Ellis, London, 1843); and *Die*
*Dreieinigkeit der Kraft* (Nuremberg, 1856).