The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Sweden

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SWEDEN (Swedish, Sverige), a kingdom of northern Europe, forming with Norway the Scandinavian peninsula, and lying between lat. 55° 20′ and 69° N., and lon. 11° 10′ and 24° 10′ E. It is bounded N. and W. by Norway, S. W. by the Skager Rack, the Cattegat, and the Sound, S. by the Baltic sea, E. by the Baltic and the gulf of Bothnia, and N. E. by Finland. It is separated from Norway by the main chain of the Scandinavian system of mountains, along which a broad avenue cut in the forest, and having at certain intervals stone monuments, marks the line of division. This avenue is maintained with great care by the Norwegians, and its condition regularly reported to their storthing or legislature. The extreme length of Sweden is 970 m., and its general breadth about 200 m.—The coast line, about 1,400 m. in extent, is deeply indented by numerous fiords or gulfs. About 300 m. of the coast borders on the Skager Rack, Cattegat, and Sound; the remainder is washed by the Baltic and the gulf of Bothnia. The W. shore along the Skager Rack and Cattegat, is rocky, but seldom elevated more than 30 or 40 ft. The S. shore as far as Sölvesborg in Blekinge is low and sandy; thence northward it is, with some exceptions, lined by precipitous cliffs about 50 ft. high as far as Calmar sound. Along the Sound the coast is again low and sandy, but N. of it rises into higher cliffs, and at the outlet of Lake Mælar presents bold headlands 100 ft. high. N. of the mouth of the Dal and as far as the strait of Quarken rocky and sandy shores alternate; and the upper part of the gulf of Bothnia is characterized by low sandy beaches. The entire coast N. of Calmar is lined with numerous rocky and sandy islets, which render access difficult in many places. Off of the län of Calmar, and separated from it by Calmar sound, is the island of Öland; and N. E. of this lies Gottland, the largest island of Sweden. The Aland group, off the län of Stockholm, belongs to Russia.—The mountain chain which forms the spine of the Scandinavian peninsula has a much larger portion of its most elevated surface in Norway than in Sweden. Its southern part, the Langfield chain, is wholly in Norway, while the Dovrefield and Kiölen chains form the boundary between the two countries, Sulitelma in lat. 67° and Sylfjell in lat. 63°, lie partly in each. The Norwegian side of these mountains is much more precipitous than the Swedish. In Sweden they form a plateau nearly 4,000 ft. high, from which occasional peaks rise to a greater height, but which in a breadth of 40 m. slopes gradually to an elevation of from 800 to 1,000 ft., and thence declines in hills of moderate elevation to the sea shore. S. of lat. 59° the country is very level, and the great plain of Scania, the most fertile tract of the peninsula, occupies a considerable portion of the southern extremity. The northern part of Sweden is rocky, with bleak, barren, snow-clad hills, and a stunted vegetation of birch, fir, and small pines, in the higher lands intermingled with dreary lakes and swamps. The great forest region lies S. of lat. 64°, where the surface is less elevated. Further S. it is more level, and the woods give place to cultivated fields.—Sweden abounds in beautiful lakes, which cover more than 14,000 sq. m. of its surface. Lake Wener has an area of about 2,000 sq. m., and, excepting Ladoga and Onega in Russia, is the largest lake in Europe. Its principal affluent is the Klar, which enters it from the north, and its waters are carried into the Cattegat by the Götha. At the Trolhätta falls on the latter, the river descends by rapids 108 ft. in 5 m. Lake Wetter is 80 m. long and has an area of 715 sq. m. Its surface is about 300 ft. above the sea, and in one part it is more than 400 ft. deep. It has many small affluents. The river Motala carries its waters through several smaller lakes into the Baltic. The Mælar lake, about 75 m. long, is a series of lakes connected by channels and having many branches. It contains more than 1,200 islands, most of which are of great beauty. Other principal lakes are Hjelmar, connected with the Mælar, Siljan, Stor, Stor Uman, Horn Afvan, Stora Lulea, and Tornea, almost all in the north. None of the rivers of Sweden are navigable, excepting those which have been rendered so artificially. With the exception of the Klar and a few smaller streams on the W. coast and on the coast of the Baltic, nearly all of them have their source in the main mountain range and flow S. E. into the gulf of Bothnia. The largest is the Dal, which is formed by the junction near Fahlun of the East Dal and the West Dal, and enters the gulf of Bothnia near Gefle. At Elfkarleby, near its mouth, it forms a splendid cascade, which is surrounded by fine scenery. N. of this the principal rivers are the Ljusne, Indals, Angerman, Umea and its branch the Windel, Skelleftea, Pitea, Lulea, Ranea, Kalix, and Tornea. The last, with its branch the Muonio, forms the boundary line between Sweden and Russia. Most of these rivers have cataracts and rapids. The Angerman is 240 m. long, and is navigable for vessels of 600 tons 60 m. from its mouth.—The geological formations of Sweden are chiefly granites, gneiss, and metamorphic rocks. They compose most of the Scandinavian chain of mountains, and are in many places covered with Silurian strata, which sometimes are seen undisturbed from their original horizontal position. These are broken through and overflowed by trap; and the surface is generally covered with the drift formation and large bowlders. The metamorphic group abounds in metallic veins, which constitute a large portion of the wealth of the country. Among the metals produced are iron, copper, lead, zinc, silver, gold, nickel, cobalt, and manganese. The pyritiferous slates are largely worked for alum and copperas, and these, as well as the sulphurous gangues of the various ores, furnish unlimited supplies of sulphur. In 1872 there were produced 4,881 cwt. of alum, 1,914 cwt. of iron vitriol, 2,936 cwt. of copper vitriol, and 7,667 cwt. of sulphur. The most important iron mines are those at Dannemora and Osterby in the län of Upsal, Presberg in Wermland, Taberg in Jonköping, and in the läns of Örebro, Gefleborg, Kopparberg, and Westmanland. Taberg is a mountain of magnetic ore 1,129 ft. high. At Gellwara, near the Lulea river, in Norrbotten, is also a mountain of nearly pure magnetic iron ore, with some specular ore. Swedish iron is not excelled by any in the world, and is largely used in the manufacture of steel. Nearly 500 iron mines were open in 1873; the total yield of rock iron ore was 18,170,000 cwt., and of bog iron ore 117,793 cwt. The principal copper mines are at Fahlun in Kopparberg, at Atvidaberg in Ostergottland, at Flögforss in Örebro, in Jämtland, and in Westmanland. Silver is mined in small quantities at Sala in Westmanland and in Örebro, and zinc near Askersund in Örebro and other places. In 1873 the yield of copper was about 5,000 cwt., of silver 16 cwt., of zinc 602,883 cwt, of nickel 24,420 cwt., and of manganese 6,713 cwt. Coal of inferior quality is found near Helsingborg in Malmö, and large veins of better quality have been discovered lately in other parts. The yield in 1873 was 2,406,486 cubic feet. Marble is quarried in Ostergottland, and at Elfdal in Kopparberg are the celebrated porphyry quarries, where many varieties of that stone are found. In 1872 14,734 mining licenses were issued in the kingdom. An interesting geological change in the coast line of Sweden is the gradual rising of the land along the gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic sea. This was first observed in the beginning of the 18th century by Celsius, who attributed it to the subsidence of the waters of the Baltic; but in 1807 Von Buch made a careful examination of the coast, and announced his conviction that “the whole country, from Frederikshald in Norway to Abo in Finland, and perhaps as far as St. Petersburg, is slowly and insensibly rising.” According to later observations, the greatest rise is further N. at the top of the gulf of Bothnia, where it amounts to about 4½ ft. in a century; at Gefle, 90 m. N. of Stockholm, it is from 2 to 3 ft. in a century; at Stockholm it is scarcely 6 in.; and at Malmö the movement seems to be downward.—The soil is generally not very fertile, much of it being the result of the disintegration of primitive rocks, and containing a large proportion of silex. The productive soil constitutes about 53 per cent. of the entire area, the remainder being sand barrens, rocks, and heaths. Of the productive parts about 13 per cent. are arable, 5 per cent. meadow lands and pasturage, and 82 per cent. forests. The climate of the Scandinavian peninsula is generally milder than that of other countries in the same latitude. The average winter temperature in the more populous portions of the country is but little lower than that of the state of New York. At Stockholm, in lat. 59° 20′, the mean annual temperature is about 42°, that of winter 25° and of summer 62°; at Lund, lat. 55° 42′, the annual mean is 45°, that of winter 30° and of summer 62°; at Fahlun, lat. 60° 36′, the annual mean is 40°, that of winter 22° and that of summer 58.30°; and at the Russian frontier village Enontekis, lat. 68° 30′, and at an elevation of 1,440 ft., the annual mean is 27°, the winter temperature 2° and the summer 55°. In Swedish Lapland there are scarcely two months of summer. In Norrland, in nine weeks, hay will have been cut twice and the year's seeding and harvest completed. At Stockholm the longest day is 18½ hours and the shortest 5½ hours; at Tornea 22 hours is the longest; and at Enontekis the sun remains above the horizon about seven weeks.—The pine and fir forests of Sweden furnish a great abundance of timber, which is largely exported. In the middle province there are also considerable quantities of ash, linden, willow, maple, and the weeping birch, one of the most beautiful of northern forest trees. In the southern province the oak attains great size and beauty, and the beech and elm are common. With the exception of the cherry there are few fruit trees N. of the 60th parallel, and scarcely any trees grow N. of the 64th parallel. Barley is cultivated in all parts of Sweden, and rye, wheat, oats, beans, peas, and potatoes are successfully grown in the middle and southern provinces. Apples and pears grow in the southern districts, and cranberries and other berries in the northern. The gooseberry grows all over the country. Tobacco is raised in the vicinity of Stockholm. Root crops are largely cultivated. The agricultural crops in 1874 were as follows, in imperial bushels: wheat, 4,000,000; rye, 20,000,000; barley, 12,000,000; oats, 30,000,000; potatoes, 52,000,000. Large quantities are also raised of peas, beans, mixed grain, buckwheat, hemp, and hay. During the year ending Sept. 30, 1873, 11,852,049 bushels of cereals were exported from Sweden; and the total imports of grain, flour, and meal during the same time were 2,326,581 bushels. The crops of 1874 were below the average, and the importations of grain were larger than in 1873.—The fauna of Sweden is not so numerous as that of some of the other northern countries of Europe. The principal quadrupeds are the brown bear, wolf, lynx, fox, glutton, deer, reindeer, elk, marten, otter, beaver, sable, hare, and squirrel. Bears, elk, deer, and beavers are now scarce. Wild reindeer are sometimes met with in the northern provinces. Lemmings occasionally come down in droves from the Kiölen mountains and lay waste the country in their path. Among the indigenous birds are the eagle, eagle owl, falcon, hawk, swan, goose, eider duck and other species of wild ducks, gull, ptarmigan, capercailzie and other grouse, woodcock, blackcock, and snipe. The sheltered coasts of the Baltic and the gulf of Bothnia are the resort of immense flocks of sea fowl. The lakes, rivers, and seas abound with fish. Many of the rivers contain fine salmon, trout and grayling are caught in every mountain stream, and pike and perch abound. The turbot, cod, mackerel, ling, and herring are taken in considerable quantities, and lobsters, crabs, and oysters are abundant. Great numbers of the strömming, a small fish about as large as a sprat, are caught in the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, and cured. It is said that more than 80 kinds of salt and fresh water fish are sold in the markets of Gothenburg. The domestic animals are mostly small and of inferior quality, but efforts are making to improve the breeds, particularly of sheep. Fine animals are imported from foreign countries, and there are public breeding establishments. In 1870 there were in Sweden 1,966,500 horned cattle, 1,595,000 sheep, and about 428,500 horses.—The three great divisions of Sweden, Gothland (Sw. Götaland), Svealand, and Norrland, are subdivided into 24 läns or districts, the extent and population of which in 1874 were as follows:

 sq. m. 
 Population.  CAPITAL.

Malmö 1,847  325,909   Malmö.
Christianstad 2,507  227,008   Christianstad.
Blekinge 1,165  129,521   Carlscrona.
Kronoberg. 3,840  162,233   Wexiö.
Jönköping 4,299  184,210   Jönköping
Calmar 4,446  236,914   Calmar.
Ostergötland 4,145  261,891   Linköping.
Halland 1,901  130,008   Halmstad.
Skaraborg 3,310  249,089   Mariestad.
Elfsborg 4,948  283,692   Wenersborg.
Gothenburg and Bohus 1,953  239,587   Gothenburg.
Gottland (Island) 1,212  54,284   Wisby.
Lakes Wener and Wetter  2,729  ......   ............

Total 38,302  2,484,346   
Stockholm 2,860  280,801   Stockholm.
Upsal 2,015  102,629   Upsal.
Södermanland 2,603  138,696   Nyköping.
Westmanland 2,549  119,485   Westeras.
Orebro 3,503  174,893   Orebro.
Wermland. 6,520  265,027   Carlstad.
Kopparberg 11,240  181,258   Fahlun.
Lakes Mælar and Hjelmar. 659  ......   ............

Total 31,949  1,262,789   
Gefleborg 7,464  157,196   Gefle.
Wester Norrland 9,515  143,614   Hernösand.
Jämtland 19,586  73,593   Ostersund.
Westerbotten 23,865  96,084   Umea.
Norrbotten 41,069  80,350   Pitea.

Total 101,499  550,837   
Total of Sweden  171,750   4,297,972   

Gothland (the region originally inhabited by the Goths) lies S. of lat. 59°, and comprises also the islands of Öland and Gottland; Svealand, the original country of the Svenskar or Swedes, extends from Gothland northward to about lat. 60° 15′ at its eastern extremity, and lat. 62° 15′ at the western; and Norrland is the whole northern part up to the Norwegian frontier of Finland. In 1874 Sweden had 89 towns, only one of which, Stockholm, the capital, had more than 100,000 inhabitants (147,249). Of the others, Gothenburg had 61,599, Norrköping and Malmö from 25,000 to 30,000 each, and Carlscrona, Gefle, Upsal, Lund, and Jönköping from 12,000 to 18,000 each.—Besides the Swedes proper, the population of Sweden in 1870 included 6,611 Lapps, 27,079 Finns, and 12,015 foreigners; of the last, 2,856 were Germans, 2,795 Danes, 2,570 Norwegians, 2,018 Finlanders, 806 Russians, 355 English, 157 Americans, 122 French, and a few of other nationalities. Besides the members of the Lutheran church, to which nearly all the native population belong, there were in 1870 3,809 Baptists, Methodists, and Mormons, 1,836 Jews, 573 Roman Catholics, 30 Greek Catholics, and 190 of the Reformed church. The number of householders in 1870 was 1,017,323. The average number of marriages in every 10,000 inhabitants during the decade ending in 1870 was 65.44; the whole number of divorces during the same period was 1,301. The proportion of illegitimate births in the whole kingdom in 1873 was 11 per cent., and in Stockholm 38.15 per cent. In 1870 the number of paupers wholly supported at the public expense was 85,147, and the number of convicts in all the prisons was 5,951. Intemperance, which has heretofore prevailed so extensively as to mar the character of the people, has been checked by wise legislation, and crime has decreased; but the consumption of distilled spirits as drink is still large, in the proportion of about 2½ gallons a year to each inhabitant. Monday, as well as Sunday, is often spent by working men in dissipation, which has given rise to the phrase “free Monday.” Like the other branches of the Scandinavian race, the Swedes are tall and of a sandy or florid complexion and powerful physique. As a nation they are enterprising, energetic, honest, and thrifty. More than half of the population belong to the peasantry or bonde class, who are gradually absorbing the landed property of the kingdom. They are mostly engaged in agriculture, and are industrious and prudent. The cottager or torpar, who hires his house and patch of ground, is below the peasant in social rank. The law formerly prescribed the costumes for the lower classes, but now all dress as they please. In Dalecarlia (the region on both sides of the Dal) the peasants of each parish have different and fanciful costumes. Wooden shoes or leather shoes with wooden soles are largely worn. Men, women, and children labor together in the fields; women do various kinds of outdoor work in the towns, such as the mixing of mortar and the tending of masons, and most of the drudgery in factories. By law no children under 12 years of age can be employed in a factory, and none under 18 can be required to work after dark. In 1873 more than 26,000 persons were employed in the mines and in mining industry. The class of burghers are members of the various mercantile guilds or are engaged in manufacturing. The nobility consists of about 1,600 families. They formerly possessed one fifth of the landed property of the kingdom, but many of them are now very poor, and their pride will not permit them to engage in commercial or industrial pursuits. Although their political power as a distinct class was annulled by the reform of the constitution in 1866, they still hold the chief offices in the state, and in one of the guard regiments only noblemen are commissioned officers. There has of late been a large emigration from Sweden, chiefly to the United States, which in 1869 amounted to 39,069; but it decreased in 1870 to 29,003, in 1871 to 17,450, in 1872 to 15,915, and in 1873 to 13,580.—Sweden has made great progress in manufacturing industry within the past few years. While the number of distilleries, of which in 1835 there were 85,172 small and 670 large ones, had diminished in 1866 to 565, other branches of industry have greatly increased. The value of the goods produced in the registered manufactories of the country in 1830 was $3,500,000; in 1840, $5,700,000; in 1850, $10,900,000; in 1860, $18,500,000; in 1865, $20,300,000; and in 1870, $24,700,000. These sums are exclusive of the products of hand trades, which are estimated to be equal in value to the manufactures proper. The number of manufactories in 1830 was 1,857, in 1865 2,315, and in 1870 2,183. In 1870 the manufactories produced cloth valued at $2,300,000; other textile fabrics, $1,500,000; silk, $290,000; cotton spinning, $2,300,000; leather, $1,300,000; tobacco, $1,600,000; sugar, $3,500,000; metals, $2,100,000; and paper, $760,000.—The following table shows the value of the imports and exports for the five years ending with 1873:

 YEARS.  Imports. Exports.

1869   $36,610,000    $33,720,000  
1870 37,970,000 40,870,000
1871 45,340,000 42,150,000
1872 58,090,000 53,550,000
1873 72,746,000 59,470,000

Partial returns for 1874 show a further relative increase in imports and a decrease in exports. The imports from the United States in 1873, direct and indirect, amounted to $7,476,878; the exports to the United States, $3,073,074. The chief imports of Sweden are textile fabrics, groceries, mineral ores and manufactured metals, ships, carriages, and machinery, bones and hides, yarn, thread, and spinning materials, wines and alcohol, colors and dyes, and coin. The chief exports are timber, metals, grain, cattle, provisions (animal), tallow and oil, and paper and paper goods. The direct imports from the United States are petroleum, resin, tallow, and agricultural machines and implements; indirect, cotton, pork, tobacco, sewing machines, and gold and silver bullion. The merchant marine of Sweden in 1872 numbered 3,878 vessels (including 498 steamers), of 426,000 aggregate tonnage.—Sweden has remarkable facilities for internal navigation through a series of lakes, rivers, and bays, connected by more than 300 m. of canals. These furnish direct water communication between the Baltic and the North sea, which is of great importance, as in case of war the Danes would command the channels through the Belts and the Sound. The importance of this connection was well understood in the 12th and 13th centuries, but Gustavus Vasa was the first to undertake it. Various sovereigns continued the work, and in 1823 the line was opened from Söderköping on the Baltic through Lakes Wetter and Wener. The canal from Lake Wener around Trollhätta falls, originally built in 1800, was next enlarged and rebuilt, and in 1855 the entire route was thrown open for steamers. It is in all 235 m. long, of which about 60 m. are across the lakes. Its most elevated point is Lake Wiken, between Wetter and Wener, where it is 299 ft. above the level of the sea; the descent is made by vessels on each side through 37 locks. Other canals connect the Mælar lake with Lakes Hjelmar and Barken, and with the Baltic. There are excellent roads all over the country, and in winter, when the canals and lakes are frozen and the ground is covered with snow for four or five months, communication is easily kept up with the interior by means of sledges. A network of railways is now in course of construction, to connect all the important districts of the kingdom, chiefly at the expense of the government. The state lines include the main or trunk lines, the principal of which are the western, from Stockholm to Gothenburg, and its branches; the southern, from Falköping on the western line to Malmö; the northwestern, from Laxa on the western line to the frontier of Norway; the eastern, from Kathrineholm on the western line to Norrköping; and the northern, connecting Stockholm with the principal cities of the north. In August, 1874, 1,639 m. were in operation, of which 878 m. belonged to the state and 761 m. to private companies; 1,744 m. were in construction, 437 m. by the state and 1,307 m. by private companies. At the beginning of 1875, 451 m. had been finished, making the total length of all the railways at that time 2,090 m. Of the telegraph lines, all of which, excepting those belonging to private railway companies, are the property of the state, 4,654 m. were in operation in 1872, with 10,081 m. of wires; of these, 177 m. were submarine cables. The number of post offices in the kingdom in 1872 was 546, and the number of letters passing through the mails was 14,465,572.—Previous to 1858 the unit of money in Sweden was the riksdaler (government dollar). The wars prior to 1815 depreciated the Swedish paper money greatly, and the government notes were of less value than those issued by the bank, which was an independent institution, though under the management of directors appointed by the legislature. The specie dollar was 106 cts., the riksgalds (royal debts) dollar 26½ cts., or four to the specie dollar; while the riksdaler banco, or bank dollar, was 39¾ cts., or three eighths of the specie dollar and 1½ of the riksgalds. The riksdaler banco hence became the official money of accounts. All three (the specie, banco, and riksgald) were divided into 48 skillings, and the skilling into 12 rundstyks. In 1854 the diet adopted a decimal system, which was put into operation Jan. 1, 1858. In this system the riksgald dollar (26½ cts.) is the unit; it is called the riksdaler ryksmint, and divided into 100 öres. In 1872 a convention was signed at Stockholm by the plenipotentiaries of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, for the introduction of a common system of coinage into the Scandinavian kingdoms. This was ratified by Sweden, and the new coinage was put into circulation on Jan. 1, 1875. The basis is gold, with silver and bronze for the smaller coins, the unit being the kronor or crown (2645 cts.) of 100 öres. The gold coins, which are an alloy of 90 parts gold and 10 copper, are the 10-crown piece and the 20-crown piece. The silver coins have an alloy of copper, and consist of pieces of one and of two crowns, and of 50, 40, 25, and 10 öres respectively. The bronze coins are of 95 parts copper, 4 tin, and 1 zinc, and are of the respective values of 1, 2, and 5 öres. In weights, the Swedish pound, which is the unit, is equal to 0.937 of the pound avoirdupois; it is subdivided into 100 orts of 100 korns each; 100 pounds make a centner, and 100 centners a nyläst. In length, one Swedish foot is equal to 0.974 of an English foot, and is divided into 10 inches of 10 lines each. The Swedish mile is equal to 6.6235 English miles; the square mile to 43.87 English square miles. The measure of contents has the Swedish cubic foot for its unit, divided into 10 cans of 100 cubic inches each.—Sweden and Norway form a single kingdom, but have separate internal administrations, the king residing alternately in each country. (See Norway.) The government is a limited monarchy, hereditary only in the male line. The king is sole executive of the realm, commander of the land and sea forces, and head of the church, and has the right to preside in the supreme court of justice. He must be a member of the Lutheran church. His person is inviolable, and his action exempt from censure, but he is required in Sweden to advise and consult with a council of state composed of ten members, two of whom, called ministers of state, hold the portfolios of justice and of foreign affairs, and eight of whom are called councillors of state; of the latter, five are the chiefs respectively of the departments of marine, war, finance, ecclesiastical affairs, and the interior, and three have only consultative voices. All the members of the council are responsible for the acts of the government. In practice the king submits all measures excepting military and diplomatic affairs to his councillors, but he is not bound to follow their advice. If he proceeds to unconstitutional measures, they must make a formal protest or be held responsible before a high court convened for their trial. During the absence of the king in Norway, Sweden is governed by a regency named by him, consisting of a prince of the blood or a minister of state and three councillors. In case of his absence in a foreign country, or of the minority of the sovereign, the two kingdoms are governed by a joint regency consisting of ten Swedes and ten Norwegians. The law-making power is vested in a legislature called the diet, which previous to the amendment of the constitution in 1866 consisted of four houses, respectively of the nobles, clergy, burghers, and peasants, but is now divided into an upper and a lower chamber. The upper chamber has one member for every 30,000 of population (in 1874, 128), who are elected for nine years and receive no salary. Each member must be more than 35 years old, and must have possessed for at least three years previous to election real estate of the taxed value of 80,000 riksdalers, or an annual income of 4,000 riksdalers. There are only 6,000 Swedes eligible to a seat in this chamber, of whom about 1,750 reside in the country. Members are elected indirectly, in cities by the municipalities and in the country by the 25 provincial assemblies. These assemblies, called landsting, are selected by electors chosen by the people in the communal or parish elections, in which each property owner, male or female, is allowed one vote to each 100 riksdalers of taxable income. In the cities no one can cast more than 100 votes, the number authorized by 10,000 riksdalers of income. The lower chamber consists of one representative for every 10,000 inhabitants of towns, of one deputy for every rural district whose population is less than 40,000, and two deputies for those of more than 40,000. In 1874 the number of members was 194, of whom 56 represented the towns and 138 the rural districts. They are elected for three years, and receive each a salary of 1,200 riksdalers for the session of four months and travelling expenses. They are chosen generally by direct vote, although they may be by indirect vote at the option of a district. Every male Swede 21 years of age and over, who owns real property of the assessed value of 1,000 riksdalers, or holds a five years' lease of property of the value of 6,000 riksdalers, or pays an income tax on 800 riksdalers is entitled to vote in their election; and if he is 25 years old and has possessed these property qualifications for one year preceding the election, he may be elected a member. The diet assembles every year, on Jan. 15, without special convocation. The king appoints the president and vice president of each chamber. The diet appoints: 1, a lawyer as procurator general to superintend the execution of the laws by judges and officers; 2, a committee of 48 members, every third year, to report whether the members of the supreme court deserve to retain their positions; and 3, a committee of six members, also every third year, to watch with the procurator general over the liberty of the press. Laws for changing or abolishing rights of the nobility require the consent of an assembly of nobles, and ecclesiastical laws can be enacted, changed, or abrogated only with the consent of a general church assembly. The king has the right of absolute veto of any measure passed by the diet. The judiciary consists of the supreme court of the kingdom, composed of 16 judges in two divisions, which interprets the laws and renders justice in the name of the king, who when he presides has the right of two votes; three royal courts of justice, sitting at Stockholm, Jönköping, and Christianstad; a royal court of military justice; and a supreme court of admiralty. There are also throughout the kingdom petty courts, of which the clergy are often magistrates.—The estimate of receipts and expenditures of the administration for the year 1875 is as follows:

Ordinary revenue, including land tax, receipts from railways, telegraphs, forests, tonnage dues, &c. 25,135,000
Customs 19,500,000
Posts 3,400,000
Stamps 1,880,000
Impost on spirits 12,000,000
Impost on beet sugar 60,000
Income tax 2,800,000 —39,640,000
On account of the public debt:
Cash, interest, &c. 11,037,939
Loan of 1872 for construction of railways 9,437,000
Remainder of do. and new loan 14,000,000 —34,474,939

Total receipts 99,249,939
Royal household 1,266,000
Justice 3,340,400
Foreign affairs 609,365
Army 11,710,400
Navy 4,459,100
Interior 11,591,500
Church and public instruction 6,822,900
Finance 10,498,000
Pensions 1,539,135 —51,836,800
Extraordinary, including railway construction, army and fleet, and supplement to budget of 1874 28,447,108
On account of the public debt:
Liquidation of loans for railway construction 11,557,185
Loaned for construction of private railways 2,000,000
Various expenses 5,408,845 —18,966,031

Total expenses 99,249,939

At the close of 1873 the total public debt amounted to about 122,080,000 crowns. From this must be subtracted credits of about 32,240,000, which leaves the actual debt about 89,840,000 crowns. The whole of this debt was contracted for railway construction, and all in Germany, with the exception of two loans of about 30,000,000 crowns in the aggregate, which were negotiated in London. All the loans are paid off gradually by means of a sinking fund. In 1872 the diet authorized the emission of a new loan of 24,000,000 riksdalers, at 4 per cent., to continue the construction of the railways; but the budgets of 1872 and 1873 having exhibited surpluses, only 6,650,000 had been issued up to May, 1874. Sweden has but one colony, the island of St. Bartholomew in the West Indies, the administration of which costs 25,000 crowns per annum.—The army of Sweden is composed of five classes of troops, the värfvade or enrolled troops, the indelta or military colonists, the beväring or conscripted troops, the militia of Gottland, and volunteers. The active army consists of the first two of these classes. The värfvade are enlisted usually for six years; they comprise a body of about 6,000 men, among which are the royal life guards, the artillery, the engineers, and one regiment of hussars. The indelta consist of about 25,000 men, 21,000 of whom are infantry, the remainder cavalry. This body, which was established by Charles XI., is peculiar to Sweden. The men are cantoned in military districts, where they are provided for by the holders of crown lands in those districts. Each man has also assigned to him a house and a piece of land, which he cultivates for himself. The infantry are exercised annually 30 days and the cavalry 46 days. The remaining three classes constitute the reserve. The beväring are drawn by annual levy from the whole male population between the ages of 20 and 25. The right to purchase substitutes was abolished by the diet in 1872. In 1873 this body numbered 86,101 men. The militia of Gottland have a separate command, and cannot be obliged to serve out of the island; they number usually about 8,000 men. The volunteers were first organized in 1861. In time of peace they are subject only to their own rules, although their commanders are chosen by the king; but in war they may be compelled to serve under the military authorities. About 20,000 were enrolled in 1873. The effective force of the kingdom in 1873, including all the five classes, was 150,773 men. The navy was entirely reorganized in 1873, and now forms a single body called the royal fleet, with two stations, at Stockholm and Carlscrona. It consisted in 1874 of the following vessels: steamers—1 ship of the line with 66 guns, 1 frigate with 22 guns, 2 corvettes with 14 guns, 4 monitors with 8 guns, 10 small monitors (4 constructing) with 10 guns, 12 gun boats with 21 guns, 4 vessels without guns, 1 transport with 1 gun, and 2 despatch boats with 5 guns; sailing vessels—1 frigate with 36 guns, 5 corvettes with 102 guns, 1 brig with 10 guns, and 1 schooner with 8 guns; rowing vessels—4 mortar boats with 5 guns, 44 gun boats with 98 guns, and 40 launches with 49 guns; in all, 133 vessels with 455 guns. The navy is officered by 2 rear admirals, 6 commanders, 20 captain-commanders, 43 captains, 43 lieutenants, and 26 sous-lieutenants; it has an effective force of about 7,000 men, and a reserve of 35,000 men.—The Lutheran is the established church of Sweden, but all sects are tolerated. Previous to 1873, when the church assembly assented to the act of the diet permitting civil marriages and marriages by dissenting ministers, no one not confirmed in the Lutheran faith could be legally married. Every Swede who does not claim to belong to some one of the dissenting sects must be confirmed at the age of 14 or 15 and partake of the sacrament, upon which he receives a certificate from his pastor. If he neglects the requirement, he is subject to many inconveniences, and is not entitled to the same burial rites as a confirmed person. The clergy, who must be graduates of one of the universities, are generally moral and high-toned, and exercise a controlling influence in society. In the country parishes they are often magistrates as well as pastors. They receive in general a liberal income from permanent funds, tithes, and fees, but some are poorly paid. They are usually elected in parish meeting and commissioned by the king. The head of the church is the archbishop of Upsal, who has under him 11 bishops, respectively of Linköping, Skara, Strengnäs, Westeras, Wexiö, Lund, Gothenburg, Calmar, Carlstad, Hernösand, and Wisby. The archbishop and bishops are nominated by the king from a list of candidates presented by the dioceses. Ecclesiastical matters are discussed in convocation, but are subject to the decision of the king.—Public instruction is gratuitous and compulsory, and it is rare to meet with any one who cannot read and write. Primary schools exist in every parish, excepting in the northern districts, which are so thinly peopled as to render movable schools necessary. Children who do not attend schools under government supervision must furnish evidence of private education. In 1870 nearly 97 per cent. of the children from 8 to 15 years of age attended the public schools. The whole number of common schools in the kingdom was 7,303, with 555,595 pupils; of these 1,164 were movable schools. In 1871 the number of male teachers in the common schools was 5,029, of whom 52 were clergymen and 1,057 church clerks; the number of female teachers was 2,776. The amount paid for the support of common schools in 1871 was 3,537,968 riksdalers, of which 2,573,927 was contributed by parishes, 842,907 by the state, and 121,133 was derived from interest on endowments. In 1870 there were 98 high schools for boys, with 756 teachers and 12,755 pupils. No high schools were provided for girls till 1873, when one was established at Carlstad. There are also technical schools and day and evening schools in the several cities. The universities of Upsal and Lund have faculties of theology, law, medicine, and philosophy. In 1873 the former had 1,611 and the latter 563 students. Preparations are nearly completed for founding a free university at Stockholm. There is a military school at Carlberg, a higher military academy for officers of engineers and of artillery at Marieberg, and a school for naval cadets at Stockholm. Libraries and collections of art, natural history, &c., exist in all the cities, and are free to the public on certain days, and there are many literary and scientific societies in the kingdom. Almost every parish, every prison, and all the large industrial establishments have their libraries. In 1875 there were 271 newspapers and periodicals published in Sweden, of which 12 were daily and 16 were illustrated.—The early history of Sweden is confused and mythical. When Odin and his Swedes entered the country, they found a great part of it in the possession of the Goths, who had dispossessed the Lapps and Finns, and the kingdom which he founded comprised only a portion of Svealand, or the central province. (See Denmark, Northmen, Norway, and Odin.) The dynasty of the Ynglings, founded by Frey-Yngve, son of the pontiff Njord, Odin's successor, ended, it is supposed, before the 8th century, with Ingjald Illrada. He was succeeded by Ivar Vidfamne, who ruled over both the Swedes and the Goths. In 829 Ansgar or Anscarius, a monk of Corbie, visited Sweden and converted many pagans, but did not succeed in establishing Christianity. About the year 1000 Olaf Skotkonung (the lap-king, so called because he received homage when an infant) was baptized, and a bishopric was erected at Skara, but Svealand would not receive Christian teachers for more than a century afterward. Constant disputes and often open war existed for centuries between the Goths and the Swedes, and their political union was not completed until the reign of Waldemar, son of Birger Jarl (Earl Birger), who was made king in 1250. Finland had in the mean while been conquered and Christianized. In 1279 Magnus Ladulas (Barnlock, so called because he protected the people's granaries from the rapacity of the nobles) ascended the throne and reigned with ability till his death in 1290. Then followed a long period of dissension between his three sons. In 1319 Magnus Smek, an infant, became king, and in the next year succeeded by right of his mother to the throne of Norway. He established his son Haco in Norway, and induced him to marry Margaret, daughter of Waldemar, king of Denmark. The three Scandinavian states being thus allied, he attempted by the aid of the kings of Norway and Denmark to abolish the senate, but was deposed and Albert of Mecklenburg was elected king in 1363. A war ensued between him and the kings of Denmark and Norway, which ended in Albert's defeat, and on July 20, 1397, by the “union of Calmar,” Margaret, “the Semiramis of the North,” became queen of the confederate monarchy of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. She retained possession of the triple government till her death in 1412, and was succeeded by her grand-nephew Eric of Pomerania (XIII.). The union of Calmar was maintained with great difficulty for more than 100 years, though in 1434-'6 it was seriously perilled by the efforts of the Swedes under the leadership of Engelbert, a patriotic Dalecarlian miner, and but for his assassination by the treachery of a Swedish noble in 1436 would have been overthrown. In 1439 Eric was deposed, and his nephew Christopher of Bavaria chosen king; and on his death in 1448 Karl Knudsson, who had been regent at the deposition of Eric, succeeded him. Anarchy ensued under him and his successors till 1520, when Christian II. of Denmark became king. He exasperated the people by his cruelty, and they found a leader in Gustavus Ericsson, a noble of high rank, better known as Gustavus Vasa. (See Gustavus I.) Christian had executed as traitors and heretics many of the principal nobles, among them the father of Gustavus, and a great number of peasants. The resistance of the Swedes under Gustavus to the government of the Danish king was successful, and in 1523 they elected their leader king. In 1529 he introduced the reformation. At his death in 1560 he was succeeded by his son Eric XIV., who was deposed on account of alleged insanity in 1568 by his brother John III. (See Eric XIV.) John reigned till his death in 1592, when his son Sigismund, who had been elected king of Poland and had become a Roman Catholic, succeeded him, the late king's brother, Duke Charles, being regent till he could leave his kingdom of Poland. Sigismund determined to establish Romanism in the kingdom, against the will of the people, and showed himself so reckless and unscrupulous, that in 1599 he was deposed, and in 1604 his uncle Charles IX., who had acted as regent, was raised to the throne. (See Charles IX.) His reign was one of tranquillity in the kingdom, and in 1611 he died, leaving the throne to his son Gustavus Adolphus. (See Gustavus II.) After a reign of 21 years, the greater part of which was spent in wars with Poland and Russia for the possession of Ingria, Livonia, and other territories on the Baltic, and in the defence of Protestantism in Germany, while his affairs at home were managed successfully by the wise Oxenstiern, Gustavus closed his glorious career at the battle of Ltitzen in 1632, and his daughter Christina, then six years of age, succeeded him. (See Christina.) Oxenstiern was invested with the chief management of affairs; Baner, Torstenson, and other Swedish generals won new victories; and the kingdom for a time prospered, and by the peace of Westphalia in 1648 received western Pomerania and other accessions of territory. After Christina's coming of age, her want of fixed principles and the violence of her disposition soon plunged the country into debt and trouble, and in 1654 she abdicated in favor of her cousin Charles X. His reign of six years was marked by brilliant campaigns against the Danes and in Poland, and acts of great personal bravery; but his victories brought no advantage to Sweden, and only wasted her resources. (See Charles X.) He died in 1660, and was succeeded by his young son Charles XI., during whose minority a peace was concluded by which the kingdom had 10 or 12 years of tranquillity. In 1676 began a war with the elector of Brandenburg and the Danes, which was continued with varying success, though for the most part with disaster, till 1679, when the peace of St. Germain, leaving the Danes at the mercy of the Swedes, enabled the latter to regain more than they had lost. An advantageous peace was concluded between the two kingdoms, and confirmed by the marriage of Charles to Ulrica, the daughter of the Danish king. During the remainder of his life he devoted his attention assiduously to the settlement of the troubles existing between the nobles and the peasants, and in 1693 prevailed upon both parties to give him the power to alter the constitution as he pleased. He died in 1697, bequeathing to his son Charles XII. this absolute power. (See Charles XII.) The warlike career of this remarkable but reckless king, who humbled Frederick IV. of Denmark and Peter the Great of Russia, and dethroned Augustus II. in Poland, but succumbed at Poltava, well nigh reduced his country to ruin. At his death in 1718, his sister Ulrica Eleonora, wife of Frederick of Hesse-Cassel, after renouncing absolute authority and accepting a constitution from the nobles which restored their power, was elected by the diet to the succession. She soon surrendered the government to her husband, whose reign was a period of humiliation, during which Sweden made peace with her enemies on most disadvantageous terms, and gave up most of her Transbaltic possessions, including Livonia, Esthonia, and Ingria, which had been occupied by Peter the Great. War with Russia in 1741 resulted in defeat, and the cession in 1743 of eastern Finland. Frederick died childless in 1751, and was succeeded by Adolphus Frederick of Holstein-Eutin, bishop of Lübeck, whose election as successor had been made by the empress Elizabeth of Russia a condition of the peace of 1743. French influence corrupted the senate during his administration, and involved the country in a disastrous war with Prussia. After a turbulent reign of 20 years he died in 1771, and was succeeded by his son Gustavus. (See Gustavus III.) The revolution of August, 1772, by which Gustavus attained absolute power, and the wars which followed with Russia and Denmark in 1787, and the act of safety of 1789, which abolished the senate, were the most marked events in the Swedish history of that time. He was assassinated in 1792, and his son Gustavus IV. (see Gustavus IV.) ascended the throne; but as he was a minor, his uncle the duke of Södermanland (Sudermania) was appointed regent. In 1809 the king's imprudence and tendency to insanity led to his compulsory abdication, and his uncle was declared king under the title of Charles XIII. (See Charles XIII.) The peace made with Russia at this time deprived Sweden of Finland. A new constitution was decreed, and the prince of Holstein-Augustenburg was elected heir to the throne as crown prince. The sudden death of this prince in April, 1810, led very unexpectedly to the nomination of Bernadotte, prince of Ponte Corvo (see Bernadotte), as crown prince, whose success in securing Norway to Sweden (the rest of Swedish Pomerania being given up) endeared him to the people. In 1818, on the death of Charles XIII., he ascended the throne as Charles XIV. John. During his reign Sweden prospered, commerce, the arts, and manufactures made rapid progress, and the moral and social condition of the people was greatly advanced. His son Oscar I. succeeded him at his death in 1844, and encouraged the moral, social, and political progress of the country. (See Oscar I.) At his death in 1859, he was succeeded by his son Charles XV., who had been regent of the kingdom since 1857 in consequence of King Oscar's illness. (See Charles XV.) During the Crimean war Sweden and Norway remained neutral. Many constitutional reforms were effected during Charles's reign. On his death in 1872 without male offspring, he was succeeded by his brother Oscar II., who has continued his liberal policy. (See Oscar II.)