The Annotated 'Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes'/The Donkey, The Pack, And The Pack-Saddle
IN a little place called Le Monastiermap, in a pleasant highland valley fifteen miles from Le Puymap, I spent about a month of fine days. Monastier is notable for the making of lace, for drunkenness, for freedom of language, and for unparalleled political dissension. There are adherents of each of the four French parties—Legitimists, Orleanists, Imperialists, and Republicans—in this little mountain-town; and they all hate, loathe, decry, and calumniate each other. Except for business purposes, or to give each other the lie in a tavern brawl, they have laid aside even the civility of speech. ’Tis a mere mountain Poland. In the midst of this Babylon I found myself a rallying-point; every one was anxious to be kind and helpful to the stranger. This was not merely from the natural hospitality of mountain people, nor even from the surprise with which I was regarded as a man living of his own free will in Le Monastier, when he might just as well have lived anywhere else in this big world; it arose a good deal from my projected excursion southward through the Cevennes. A traveller of my sort was a thing hitherto unheard of in that district. I was looked upon with contempt, like a man who should project a journey to the moon, but yet with a respectful interest, like one setting forth for the inclement Pole. All were ready to help in my preparations; a crowd of sympathisers supported me at the critical moment of a bargain; not a step was taken but was heralded by glasses round and celebrated by a dinner or a breakfast.
It was already hard upon October before I was ready to set forth, and at the high altitudes over which my road lay there was no Indian summer to be looked for. I was determined, if not to camp out, at least to have the means of camping out in my possession; for there is nothing more harassing to an easy mind than the necessity of reaching shelter by dusk, and the hospitality of a village inn is not always to be reckoned sure by those who trudge on foot. A tent, above all for a solitary traveller, is troublesome to pitch, and troublesome to strike again; and even on the march it forms a conspicuous feature in your baggage. A sleeping-sack, on the other hand, is always ready—you have only to get into it; it serves a double purpose—a bed by night, a portmanteau by day; and it does not advertise your intention of camping out to every curious passer-by. This is a huge point. If a camp is not secret, it is but a troubled resting-place; you become a public character; the convivial rustic visits your bedside after an early supper; and you must sleep with one eye open, and be up before the day. I decided on a sleeping-sack; and after repeated visits to Le Puy, and a deal of high living for myself and my advisers, a sleeping-sack was designed, constructed, and triumphantly brought home.
This child of my invention was nearly six feet square, exclusive of two triangular flaps to serve as a pillow by night and as the top and bottom of the sack by day. I call it ‘the sack,’ but it was never a sack by more than courtesy: only a sort of long roll or sausage, green waterproof cart-cloth without and blue sheep’s fur within. It was commodious as a valise, warm and dry for a bed. There was luxurious turning room for one; and at a pinch the thing might serve for two. I could bury myself in it up to the neck; for my head I trusted to a fur cap, with a hood to fold down over my ears and a band to pass under my nose like a respirator; and in case of heavy rain I proposed to make myself a little tent, or tentlet, with my waterproof coat, three stones, and a bent branch.
It will readily be conceived that I could not carry this huge package on my own, merely human, shoulders. It remained to choose a beast of burden. Now, a horse is a fine lady among animals, flighty, timid, delicate in eating, of tender health; he is too valuable and too restive to be left alone, so that you are chained to your brute as to a fellow galley-slave; a dangerous road puts him out of his wits; in short, he’s an uncertain and exacting ally, and adds thirty-fold to the troubles of the voyager. What I required was something cheap and small and hardy, and of a stolid and peaceful temper; and all these requisites pointed to a donkey.
There dwelt an old man in Monastier, of rather unsound intellect according to some, much followed by street-boys, and known to fame as Father Adam. Father Adam had a cart, and to draw the cart a diminutive she-ass, not much bigger than a dog, the colour of a mouse, with a kindly eye and a determined under-jaw. There was something neat and high-bred, a quakerish elegance, about the rogue that hit my fancy on the spot. Our first interview was in Monastier market-place. To prove her good temper, one child after another was set upon her back to ride, and one after another went head over heels into the air; until a want of confidence began to reign in youthful bosoms, and the experiment was discontinued from a dearth of subjects. I was already backed by a deputation of my friends; but as if this were not enough, all the buyers and sellers came round and helped me in the bargain; and the ass and I and Father Adam were the centre of a hubbub for near half an hour. At length she passed into my service for the consideration of sixty-five francs and a glass of brandy. The sack had already cost eighty francs and two glasses of beer; so that Modestine, as I instantly baptized her, was upon all accounts the cheaper article. Indeed, that was as it should be; for she was only an appurtenance of my mattress, or self-acting bedstead on four castors.
I had a last interview with Father Adam in a billiard-room at the witching hour of dawn, when I administered the brandy. He professed himself greatly touched by the separation, and declared he had often bought white bread for the donkey when he had been content with black bread for himself; but this, according to the best authorities, must have been a flight of fancy. He had a name in the village for brutally misusing the ass; yet it is certain that he shed a tear, and the tear made a clean mark down one cheek.
By the advice of a fallacious local saddler, a leather pad was made for me with rings to fasten on my bundle; and I thoughtfully completed my kit and arranged my toilette. By way of armoury and utensils, I took a revolver, a little spirit-lamp and pan, a lantern and some halfpenny candles, a jack-knife and a large leather flask. The main cargo consisted of two entire changes of warm clothing—besides my travelling wear of country velveteen, pilot-coat, and knitted spencer—some books, and my railway-rug, which, being also in the form of a bag, made me a double castle for cold nights. The permanent larder was represented by cakes of chocolate and tins of Bologna sausage. All this, except what I carried about my person, was easily stowed into the sheepskin bag; and by good fortune I threw in my empty knapsack, rather for convenience of carriage than from any thought that I should want it on my journey. For more immediate needs I took a leg of cold mutton, a bottle of Beaujolais, an empty bottle to carry milk, an egg-beater, and a considerable quantity of black bread and white, like Father Adam, for myself and donkey, only in my scheme of things the destinations were reversed.
Monastrians, of all shades of thought in politics, had agreed in threatening me with many ludicrous misadventures, and with sudden death in many surprising forms. Cold, wolves, robbers, above all the nocturnal practical joker, were daily and eloquently forced on my attention. Yet in these vaticinations, the true, patent danger was left out. Like Christian, it was from my pack I suffered by the way. Before telling my own mishaps, let me in two words relate the lesson of my experience. If the pack is well strapped at the ends, and hung at full length—not doubled, for your life—across the pack-saddle, the traveller is safe. The saddle will certainly not fit, such is the imperfection of our transitory life; it will assuredly topple and tend to overset; but there are stones on every roadside, and a man soon learns the art of correcting any tendency to overbalance with a well-adjusted stone.
On the day of my departure I was up a little after five; by six, we began to load the donkey; and ten minutes after, my hopes were in the dust. The pad would not stay on Modestine’s back for half a moment. I returned it to its maker, with whom I had so contumelious a passage that the street outside was crowded from wall to wall with gossips looking on and listening. The pad changed hands with much vivacity; perhaps it would be more descriptive to say that we threw it at each other’s heads; and, at any rate, we were very warm and unfriendly, and spoke with a deal of freedom.
I had a common donkey pack-saddle—a barde, as they call it—fitted upon Modestine; and once more loaded her with my effects. The doubled sack, my pilot-coat (for it was warm, and I was to walk in my waistcoat), a great bar of black bread, and an open basket containing the white bread, the mutton, and the bottles, were all corded together in a very elaborate system of knots, and I looked on the result with fatuous content. In such a monstrous deck-cargo, all poised above the donkey’s shoulders, with nothing below to balance, on a brand-new pack-saddle that had not yet been worn to fit the animal, and fastened with brand-new girths that might be expected to stretch and slacken by the way, even a very careless traveller should have seen disaster brewing. That elaborate system of knots, again, was the work of too many sympathisers to be very artfully designed. It is true they tightened the cords with a will; as many as three at a time would have a foot against Modestine’s quarters, and be hauling with clenched teeth; but I learned afterwards that one thoughtful person, without any exercise of force, can make a more solid job than half-a-dozen heated and enthusiastic grooms. I was then but a novice; even after the misadventure of the pad nothing could disturb my security, and I went forth from the stable door as an ox goeth to the slaughter.
- Le Monastier .. for a fuller description of this highland village see Stevenson's A Mountain Town in France, an essay which was originally intended as the opening chapter of Travels.
- Le Puy .. the ancient capital of Velay, in Stevenson's time one of the most picturesque towns in Europe
- four French parties:
- Legitimists: supporters of the elder Bourbon line of Louis XIV; who wished to see the restoration of the Bourbon kings of France.
- Orleanists: also monarchists, they were supporters of the junior line of the younger brother of Louis XIV, Philippe I, Duke of Orleans.
- Imperialists: desiring a return to the glory days of Napoleon, supporters of the son of Louis Napolean, Prince Napoleon (who was subsequently killed in June 1879 by Zulus in Africa).
- Republicans: opposed to monarchy and empire; supporters of the Republic established after the Franco-Prussian War and the ideals of the French Revolution.
- a mere mountain Poland .. between 1795 and 1918 Poland ceased to exist as a nation being partitioned off between Russian, Prussia and Austria and further divided among a number of Kingdoms, Duchys, etc.. Polish political factionalism was proverbial.
- Babylon .. in the Hebrew Bible, the name appears as בבל (Babel), interpreted by Genesis 11:9 to mean "confusion", from the verb balal, "to confuse".
- portmanteau .. this word, in its linguistic sense, was coined by Lewis Carroll in 1871 in Through the Looking Glass (And What Alice Found There) from the old French word portemanteau for a type of travelling case or suitcase with two halves joined by a hinge. Stevenson's usage here works both ways in the Carroll linguistic sense, and the old French sense.
- child of my invention .. Stevenson commissioned the first sleeping bag in modern travel literature.
- cart-cloth .. [definition unknown - you can help]
- tentlet .. Stevenson is devising here a kind of shelter very similar to the tarp of current backpackers.
- Father Adam .. a local pedlar whose name was actually Surrel, he sold calendars, almanacs and other assorted dry-goods in nearby villages. (source: Golding, 137)
- quakerish .. peaceful.
- Modestine .. the name playfully suggests the modesty and small size of the donkey.
- revolver .. "It was of an antiquated pattern, uncertain in its mechanism, and more likely to be a menace than a protection to its owner." -- Fanny Stevenson.
- knitted spencer .. OED defines it as "A short coat or jacket" and then provides this quote from Travels as an example, leading one to believe he had two coats (a spencer and pilot). However, later Stevenson mentions a "knitted waistcoat" (or vest), which may be the knitted spencer. Although Christopher MacLachlan annotates it as a "waist-length jacket".
- railway-rug .. a rug that railway travelers brought along to keep warm.
- form of a bag .. thus the carpet bag, origin of the name carpetbaggers in the American South.
- Christian .. the hero in Pilgrim's Progress, the burden he carries is an allegory for his sin.
- barde .. originating from the Occitan language "barda", it consists of a wooden frame attached to a donkeys back with leather straps, to which a cart is attached.
- groom .. someone employed in a stable to take care of the horses.
- ox goeth to the slaughter .. "he goeth after her straightaway, as an ox goeth to the slaughter or as a fool to the correction of the stocks", Proverbs, vii, 22
re: cart-cloth - it may refer to as simple a thing as the canvas cloth used to protect people or goods on a cart in terms of a horse or oxen drawn wagon, as was used by the settlers pioneering the West in the US around mid 19th century. The canvas cover supported on wooden arches gave some protection from sun and rain. The cloth cover, which was typically supported on bows of wood (or occasionally iron) could be coated with various materials to make it waterproof.