The Bird Book/Finches, Sparrows, etc

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FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. Family FRINGILLD^E

514 EVENING GROSBEAK. Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina.

Range. Western United States in the Rocky Mountain region; north to Saskatchewan; south in winter to Mississippi Valley and casually east to New England and the intermediate states.

These are dull and yellowish birds, shading to brownish on the head; with a bright yellow forehead and susperciliary line, black wings and tail, and white inner secondaries and greater coverts. They breed in the mountainous portions of their range, placing their flat nests of sticks and rootlets in low trees or

bushes. The eggs are laid in May or June and

are greenish white spotted and blotched with

brown; size .90 x .65.

514a. WESTERN EVENING GROSBEAK. Hesperiphona vespertina montana.

Range. Western United States, breeding in the mountains from New Mexico to British Columbia.

The nesting habits and eggs of this variety are the same as those of the preceding, and the birds can rarely be separated.

515. PINE GROSBEAK. leucura.

Pinicola enucleator

Range/ Eastern North America, breeding from northern New England northward, and wintering to southern New England and Ohio and casually farther. They build in conifers

324

Pine Grosbeak

making their nests of small twigs and rootlets, lined with fine grasses and lichens. During the latter part of May or June they lay three or four eggs, which have a ground color of light greenish blue, spotted and splashed with dark brown, and with fainter markings of lilac. Size 1.00 x .70. Pine Grosbeaks have been separated into the following sub-species, the chief distinction between them being in their ranges. The nesting habits and eggs of all are alike.

515a. ROCKY MOUNTAIN PINE GROSBEAK. Pinicola enucleator montana.

Range. Rocky Mountain region from New Mexico to Montana.

PERCHING BIRDS

Greenish blue

51 5b. CALIFORNIA PINE GROSBEAK. cola enucleator calif ornica.

Pini

Purple Finch Range. Higher parts of the Sierra Nevadas in California.

515c. ALASKA PINE GROSBEAK. Pinicola enucleator alascensis.

Range. Interior of Northwest America from Alaska south to British Columbia.

515d. KADIAK PINE GROSBEAK. Pinicola enucleator flammula. Range. Kadiak Island and the southern coast of Alaska.

[516.] CASSIN'S BULLFINCH. Pyrrhula cassini. Range. Northern Asia; accidental in Alaska.

517- PURPLE FINCH. Carpodacus purpureus purpureus.

Range. North America east of the plains, breeding from the Middle States onrth to Labrador and Hudson Bay ; winters in the United States.

These sweet songsters are quite abundant in New England in the summer, but more so north of our borders. While they breed sometimes in trees, in orchards, I have nearly always found their nests in evergreens, usually about threefourths of the way up. The nests are made of fine weeds and grasses and lined Greenish blue with horse hair. The eggs, which are usually laid in June, are greenish blue, spotted with dark brownish; size .85 x .65.

517a. CALIFORNIA PURPLE

FINCH. Carpodacus purpureus californicus.

Range. Pacific coast, breeding from central California to British Columbia and wintering throughout California.

The nesting habits and eggs of this darker colored variety are just like those of the last,

325

515b 517a

THE BIRD BOOK

518. CASSIN'S PURPLE FINCH. Carpodacus cassini.

Range. North America west of the Rockies, breeding from British Columbia south to New Mexico;

This species is similar to the last but the back, wings and tail are darker and the purplish color of the preceding species is replaced by a more pinkish shade. The nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the eastern Purple Finch; size of eggs .85 x .60. Data. Greenish blue Willis, New Mexico, June 23, 1901. Nest made of twigs and rootlets and lined with horse hair. Collector, F. J. Birtwell.

519- HOUSE FINCH. Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis.

Range. United States west of the Plains and from Oregon and Wyoming to Mexico.

This is one of the best known of western birds, and nests commonly in all situations ,/' from trees and bushes to vines growing on j-' j porches. Their nests are made of rootlets iL and grasses and are lined with horse hair. IBi Their nesting season includes all the summer months, they raising two and sometimes Gre three broods a season. The three to five eggs are pale greenish blue with a few sharp blackish brown specks about the large end. Size .80 x .55.

51S 519

olQb. SAN LUCAS HOUSE FINCH. Carpodacus mexicanus ruberrimus.

Range. Southern Lower California. A slightly smaller variety of the preceding.

51Qc. SAN CLEMENTE HOUSE FINCH. Carpodacus mexicanus clematis.

Range. San Clemente and Santa Barbara Islands. Somewhat darker than the last.

520. GUADALUPE FINCH. Carpodacus amplus.

Range. Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

Similar to the House Finch, but deeper red and slightly larger. Their nesting habits and eggs are precisely like those of the House Finch but the eggs average larger; size .85 x .60.

520.1. MCGREGOR'S HOUSE FINCH. Carpodacus mcgregori.

Range. San Benito Island, Lower California. A newly made species, hardly to be distinguished from the last, bably the same.

326

Eggs pro

521. CROSSBILL. Loxia curvirostra minor.

Range. Northern North America, breeding in the Alleghanies and from northern New England northward; winters south to the mid die portions of the United States and casually farther.

The birds are very cur - *. ious both in appearance and

fflT'i * actions, being very "flighty"

o and restless, and apt to remain to breed on any of the mountains. They build dur ing March or April, making Greenish white their nestg Qf twigg> roo tlets,

moss, feathers, etc., and placing them in forks or on branches of trees (usually conifers) at any height from the ground. The eggs are greenish white, spotted with brown and with lavender shell markings; size .75 x .55.

PERCHING BIRDS

52 la. MEXICAN CROSSBILL. tra stricklandi.

ILoxi

'ia curviros

Crossbill

Range. Mountain ranges from central Mexico north to Wyoming. A larger variety of the preceding. The eggs will not differ except perhaps a trifle in size.

522. WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL. Loxia leucoptera.

Range. Northern North America, breeding in the Alleghanies and from northern Maine northward; winters to middle portions of the United States.

This species is rosy red with two white wing bars. Like the last, they are of a roving disposition and are apt to be found in any unexpected locality. Their nesting habits are the same as those of the American Crossbill, but the

eggs average larger and the Greenish while

markings are more blotchy; size .80 x .55.

.97 x .67.

523. ALEUTIAN ROSY FINCH. Leucosticte

griseonucha. Range. Aleutian and Pribilof Islands; south

to Kadiak. This is the largest of the genus, and can

be distinguished from the others by its very

dark chestnut coloration and the gray hindneck

and cheeks. Like the other

Leucostictes, they are

found in flocks and frequent rocky or mountain

ous country, where they

are nearly always found

on the ground. They build

in crevices among the

rocks or under ledges or

embankments, making the

nest of weeds and grasses.

pure white eggs are laid during June. Size

.97 x .67. Data. St. George Islands of the 327

White Their four or five

White-winged Crosbill

THE BIRD BOOK

524. . GRAY-CROWNED ROSY FINCH. Leucosticte tephrocotis tephrocotis.

Range. Rocky Mountain region from Saskatchewan south to northern United States and also breeding in the Sierra Nevadas; winters on the lowlands of northwestern United States and east to Manitoba.

The habits and breeding habits of this species are like those of the last. The bird is paler colored and the gray is restricted to the hind part of the head. They nest on the ground in June, laying four or five white eggs.

White

523524

524<a. HEPBURN ROSY FINCH. Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis.

Range. Higher ranges from Washington and British Columbia to Alaska.

This variety is like the Aleutian Leucosticte but the brown is a great deal paler. The nesting habits and eggs are, in all probability, like those of the last.

525. BLACK ROSY FINCH. Leucosticte atrata.

Range. Rocky Mountain region of northern United States; known to breed in Idaho.

This species is black in place of the brown of the others ; the gray is restricted to the hind part of the head and the rosy is rather more extensive on the wings. Their eggs probably cannot be distinguished from those of the Graycrowned variety.

526. BROWN-CAPPED ROSY FINCH. Leucosticte australis

Range. Breeds at high altitudes in the Rockies in Colorado; south to New Mexico in winter.

A similar bird to the Gray-crowned Leucosticte but with no gray on the head. They nest on the ground above timber line on the higher ranges of the Rockies.

527- GREENLAND REDPOLL. Acanihis hornemanni hornemanni.

Range. Greenland and northern Europe; south in winter to Labrador.

This large Redpoll nests at low elevations in trees and bushes, its habits and eggs being similar to the more common American species.

527a. HOARY REDPOLL. Acanihis hornemanni exilipes.

Range. Breeds in the Arctic regions and winters south to the northern parts of the United States.

This variety is smaller than the last and is considerably darker but still retains the white rump of the Greenland Redpoll. Its nesting habits are the same as those of the next.

525526

PERCHING BIRDS

528. REDPOLL. Acanthis linaria Unarm.

Range. Breeds within the Arctic Circle; winters south to New York, Kansas and northern California and casually farther.

This species is similar to the last but mucn darker, and the rump is also streaked with blackish. These handsome birds are often met with in winter, feeding on seeds of the weed stems that project above the snow. Their flight and song is similar to that of the Goldfinch or Pine Siskin. They nest at low elevations, either in Bluish green trees or bushes. The eggs number from three to six and are pale bluish, sparingly specked with reddish brown. Size .65 x .50. Data. Mouth of Great Whale River, Hudson Bay, May 16, 1899. Nest in a willow 4 feet from the ground ; made of fine rootlets and grass, lined with feathers. Collector, A. P. Lowe.

  • >

\

Redpoll

528a. HOLBOLL'S REDPOLL. Acanthis linaria holbcelli.

Range. Arctic regions; south casually to the border of the United States.

A slightly larger variety of the common Redpoll. Eggs probably not distinguished.

528b. GREATER REDPOLL. Acanthis linaria rostrata.

Range. Breeds in southern Greenland; in winter south through Labrador to the northern border of the United States.

This variety is larger and darker than the common Redpoll. It has been found breeding abundantly in southern Greenland, where its nesting habits are

^ the same as those of the Redpoll and the eggs

~" ~n similar but averaging a trifle larger.

52Q. GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus tristis tristis

Range. North America east of the Rockies, and from Labrador and Manitoba southward.

These beautiful birds are among our sweetest songsters from May until September. They are resident throughout their United States range, where they breed in August or early in Septem- Bluish white ber, being one of the latest nesting birds that we have. Their nests are located in bushes, at a height of generally below fifteen feet above the ground, being placed in upright forks, and made of plant fibres and thistle down, firmly woven together. They lay from three to six plain bluish white eggs. Size .65 x .50. The majority of nests that I have found have been in alders over small streams.

329

Gojdflnch

B ' H

AMERICAN GOLDFINCH

PERCHING BIRDS

529a. PALE GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus tristis pallidus.

Range/ Rocky Mountains from Mexico to British Colum bia.

This variety is slightly larger and (in winter) paler than the last.

529b. WILLOW GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus tristis salicamans.

Range. Pacific coast from Washington to Lower California.

Similar to the eastern Goldfinch but back said to be slightly greenish yellow.

530. ARKANSAS GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus psaltria psaltria.

Range. United States, west of the Plains and from Oregon to Mexico.

This species has greenish upper parts and yellow below; the crown, wings and tail are black, the bases of the lateral tail feathers llBfe^ and primaries being whitish. They are common in portions of their range, nesting in similar locations to Bluish white those chosen by the common Goldfinch and laying from three to five eggs which are similar but slightly smaller. Size .60 x .45. Data. Riverside, California, May 20, 1891. 5 eggs. Nest made of fine grasses lined with cotton ; 5 feet from the ground in a small tree.

529a 529b 530

530a. GREEN-BACKED GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus hesperophilus.

Range. Mexico north to the Lower Rio Grande in southern Texas. A similar bird to the last but with the entire upper parts and cheeks, black. The habits, nests and eggs are identical with those of the Arkansas Goldfinch.

531. LAWRENCE'S GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus lawrencei.

Range. Pacific coast of California, wintering along the Mexican border.

This grayish colored Goldfinch has a black face and yellow breast, rump, wing coverts and edges of the primaries. They are quite common in their restricted range, nesting either in upright crotches or in the forks of horizontal limbs. The four or five eggs which they lay are pure white; size .60 x .45.

Data. Santa Conica Canyon, Cal., April 26, 1903. Nest in a cypress tree 12

'feet up; composed of grasses, feathers, etc. Collector, W. Lee Chambers.

[532.] BLACK-HEADED GOLDFINCH. Spinus notatus.

Range. Mountainous regions of Central America and southern Mexico; accidental in the United States.

331

THE BIRD BOOK

533. PINE SISKIN. Spinus pinus.

Range. Breeds from northern United States northward, in the Alleghanies and in the Rockies south to New Mexico. Winters throughout the United States.

Siskins are of the size of the Goldfinch (5 inches long), and their calls, songs and habits are similar to those of this bird. Their plumage is grayish brown, streaked with dusky and the bases of the wings and tail feathers are yellow. Like the Crossbills, they frequently feed along our /^ r ' . northern borders, but very sporadically. Their nests are built on horizontal branches of pines or cedars at any elevation from the ground, being made o f Greenish white grasses and rootlets lined with hair or pine needles, and of rather frail and flat construction. Their eggs are laid during May or June and are greenish white, specked with reddish brown; size .68 x .48. Data. Hamilton Inlet,

Labrador, June 17, 1898. Nest on branch of a spruce, 10 feet from the ground;

made of grass, lined with moss and feathers. Collector, L. Dicks.

Pine Siskin

534. SNOW BUNTING. Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis.

Range. Breeds in the Arctic regions, and winters irregularly in large flocks through the United States to Oregon, Kansas and Georgia.

These birds are only seen in the United States in large roving flocks, - x , during the winter when they

  • V* ** ' . feed on weed seeds on side

hills. Their nests are built on tne ground, being sunk into the s P a S num nioss, and made of grasses lined with feathers. Their four or five eggs are a light greenish white, spotted and splashed with yellowish brown and lilac. Size .90x.65.

.

Greenish white

534a. PRIBILOF SNOW BUNTING. phenax nivalis towns endi.

Plectro

Range. Pribilof and Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

A slightly larger variety which is resident on the islands in its range. Eggs like those of the preceding; laid from May to July.

Snowflake

PERCHING BIRDS

535. McKay's SNOW BUNTING. Pletrophenax hyperboreus.

Range. Western Alaska; known to breed on Hall's Island.

This beautiful species is, in summer, entirely white except for the tips of the primaries and a black spot on end of central tail feathers, thus being very distinct from the preceding, which has the back and the wings to a greater extent black, at this season. Their eggs probably very closely resemble those of the last species.

536. LAPLAND LONGSPUR. Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus.

Range. Breeds in northern North America ; winters south casually to New York, Ohio and Oregon and occasionally farther.

These sparrow-like birds are 6.5 inches long and have a black crown, cheeks and throat, and chestnut band on nape. Like the Snowflakes they nest on the ground in moss, but the four to six eggs that they lay are grayish, heavily mottled and blotched witii chocolate brown; size .80 x .60.

Grayish

536a. ALASKA LONGSPUR. Calcarius lapponicus alascensis.

Range. Northwest North America, breeding in Alaska; winter south to Oregon. This sub-species is like the last but slightly paler. Eggs indistinguishable.

Norman W. Swayns NEST AND EGGS OF GOLDFLNCH

333

THE BIRD BOOK

Smith's Longspur

537- SMITH'S LONGSPUR. Calcarius pictus.

Range. Breeds in Hudson Bay and Mackenzie River districts and winters south to Texas chiefly o nthe Plains.

This species is of the size of the last but is a rich buff color below, and the other markings are very different. These birds together with the next species are very common on the prairies in central United States in win- Grayish

ter. They nest on the ground like the preceding species but the nests are scantily made of grasses and not warmly lined like those of the last. The eggs are similar but paler; size .80 x .60. Data. Herschell Island, Arctic Ocean, June 10, 1901. Nest built in a tuft of grass; made of fine roots and grass, lined with feathers.

Dull white

538. CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPUR. Calcarius ornatus.

Range. Plains in the interior of North America, breeding from Kansas north to Saskatchewan; very abundant in the Dakotas and Montana.

This handsome species in the breeding plumage has the throat white, breast and belly black, and a chestnut collar on the nape. They are one of the most abundant breeding birds on the prairies, nesting in hollows on the ground either in the open or protected by a tuft of grass. The nests are made of grasses and sometimes moss; three or four eggs laid in June or July; white, blotched, lined and obscurely marked with brown and purplish; size .75 x .55.

539. McCowN's LONGSPUR. Rhynchophanes

mccowni.

Range. Great Plains, breeding from Kansas to the Saskatchewan.

This Longspur which breeds in company with the preceding, throughout its range, can be distinguished from it by the small black patch on the breast, the black crown, and chestnut wing coverts. Their nesting habits are the same, and at this season all the Longspurs have a sweet song often uttered during flight, Grayish white like that of the Bobolink. Their eggs are of the same size and similarly marked as the last, but the ground color is more gray or olive.

334

Chestnut-collared Longspur

PERCHING BIRDS

540. VESPER SPARROW. Pocecetes gramineus gramineus.

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from Virginia and Missouri north to Manitoba and New Brunswick; winters in the southern half of the United States.

A streaked grayish, buffy and white bird distinguished by its chestnut shoulders and white outer tail feathers. They are abundant birds in eastern fields where their loud piping whistle is known to many frequenters of weedy pastures. They build on the ground, either in grassy or cultivated fields, lining the hollow scantily with grasses. Their four or five eggs are usually laid in May or June; they are dull whitish, blotched and splashed with light brown and lavender tints; size .80 x .60.

Whitish

McCown's Long-spur

540a. WESTERN VESPER SPARROW. Pocecetes gramineus confinis.

Range. This paler variety is found in North America west of the Plains and south of Saskatchewan.

Its nesting habits are like those of the preceding and the eggs are indistinguishable.

5 4 Ob. OREGON VESPER SPARROW. Pooecetes gramineus affinis.

A browner variety found on the coast of Oregon and northern California.

Its nesting habits are like those of the eastern bird and the eggs similar but averaging a trifle smaller.

SPARROW. I asser

1

Vesper Sparrow

domesticus.

These birds, which were imported from Europe, have increased so rapidly that they have overrun the cities and villages of the country and are doing inestimable damage both by driving out native insect eating birds and by their own destructiveness. -They nest in all sorts of places but preferably behind blinds, where their unsightly masses of strawprotrude from between the slats, and their droppings besmirch the buildings below; they breed at all seasons of the year, eggs having often been found in January, with several feet of snow on the ground and the mercury below zero. The eggs number from four to eight in a set and from four to eight sets a season; the eggs are whitish, spotted and blotched with shades of gray and black. Size .88 x .60.

335

White

A. R. Spaid

NEST AND EC.GS OF VESPER SPARROW

PERCHING BIRDS

541. IPSWICH SPARROW. Passerculus

princeps.

Range. Breeds on Sable Island, off Nova Scotia; winters on coast of South Atlantic States. This a large and pale colored form of the common Savannah Sparrow. Its nesting habits are similar to those of the latter and the eggs are marked the same but average larger. Size .80 x .60.

542. ALEUTIAN SAVANNAH SPARROW. Pas serculus sandwichensis sandwichensis.

Range. Breeds on the Alaskan coast; winters south to northern California.

A streaked Sparrow like the next but with the yellow superciliary line brighter and more extended. Its nesting habits are precisely like those of the next variety which is common and well known; the eggs are

Grayish white

indistinguishable.

Savannah Sparrow

542a. SAVANNAH SPARROW. Passerculus sandwichensis savanna. Range. North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Middle States north to Labrador and the Hudson Bay region. Similar to the last but with the superciliary line paler and the yellow reduced to a spot on the lores. Their nests are hollows in the ground, lined with grasses and generally concealed by tufts of grass or weeds. Their three to five eggs vary greatly in markings from finely and evenly dotted all over to very heavily blotched, the ground color being grayish white. Size .75 x .55

Grayish white

42b.

SAVANNAH SPARROW. Passerculus sandwichensis alau

WE STERN dinus. Range. Western North America from Alaska to Mexico.

A slightly paler form whose nesting habits and eggs do not differ from those of the last.

542c. BRYANT'S SPARROW. Passerculus sandwichensis. bryanti.

Range. Salt marshes of California from San Francisco Bay south to Mexico.

Slightly darker and brighter than the eastern Savannah Sparrow and with a more slender bill. The eggs are riot different from many specimens of savanna', they are light greenish white heavily blotched with various shades of brown and lavender. Size .75 x .55.

543. BELDING'S SPARROW. Passerculus beldingi.

Range. Pacific coast marshes of southern California and southward.

This species is similar to the last but darker .and more heavily streaked below. They breed abundantly in salt marshes, building their nests in the grass or patches of seaweed barely above the water, and making them of grass and Gravish wh j t e weeds, lined with hair; the eggs are dull grayish white, boldly splashed, spotted and clouded with brown and lavender. Size .78 x .55. 337

22

THE BIRD BOOK

544. LARGE-BILLED SPARROW. Passerculus restrains restrains.

Range. Coast of southern and Lower California.

Similar to the Savannah Sparrow but paler and grayer, without yellow lores and a larger and stouter bill. They are common in salt marshes, often in company with the last species and their nesting habits are similar to and the eggs not distinguished with certainty from those of the latter.

544a. SAN LUCAS SPARROW. Passerculus rostratus guttatus.

Range. Southern Lower California.

A slightly darker form of the preceding, having identical habits, and probably, eggs.

544c. SAN BENITO SPARROW. Passerculus rostratus sanctorum.

Range. Breeds on San Benito Islands; winters in southern Lower California.

The nesting habits and eggs of these very similar subspecies are identical.

544 544c

545.

545. BAIRD'S SPARROW. Ammodramus bairdi Range. Plains, breeding from northern United States to the Saskatchewan; south in winter to the Mexican border.

These Sparrows breed abundantly on the plains of Dakota and northward, placing their nest in hollows on the ground in fields and along road sides. During June or July, they lay three to five dull whitish eggs, blotched, splashed and spotted with light shades of brown and gray. Size .80 x .60. White

546. GRASSHOPPER SPARROW

Ammodramus savannarum australis. Range. United States east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to Canada.

A stoutly built Sparrow marked on the upper parts peculiarly, like a quail; nape grayish

and chestnut. These birds

are common in dry fields and

pastures, where their scarcely audible, grasshopper-like

song is heard during the heat

of the day. Their nests are

sunken in the ground and arched over so that they are very difficult to find, especially as the bird will not flush until nearly trod upon. The four or five eggs, laid in June, are white, specked with reddish brown. Size .72 x .55.

Ammodramus savannarum bimaculatns 546a. WESTERN GRASSHOPPER SPARROW.

Range. West of the Plains from British Columbia to Mexico.

Slightly paler than the last; has the same nesting habits; eggs indistinguishable.

338

White

Baird's Sparrow

Grasshopper Sparrow

GRASSHOPPER SPARROW ON NEST

C. A. "Ree'd

THE BIRD BOOK

Hpnslow's Sparrow

Lieconte's Sparrow

546b. FLORIDA GRASSHOPPER SPARROW. Ammodramus savannarum ftoridanus.

Range. Central Florida.

A local form, darker above and paler below than the common species. Eggs not different in any particular.

547. HENSLOW'S SPARROW. Passerherbulus henslowi henslowi.

Range. United States east of the Plains, breeding locally from Maryland and Missouri north to Massachusetts and Minnesota.

This species is similar in form and marking to the last, but is olive green on the nape, and the breast and sides , are streaked with blackish. Their nesting habits are very similar to those of the Grasshopper Sparrow, the nests being difficult to find. The eggs are greenish white, spotted White

with reddish brown. Size .75x.55.

547a. WESTERN HENSLOW'S SPARROW. Passerherbulus henslowi accident alia.

Range. A paler and very local form found in the Plains in South Dakota and

probably, adjoining states. Eggs not apt to differ from those of the preceding.

548. LECONTE'S SPARROW. Passerherbulus lecontei.

Range. Great Plains, breeding from northern United States to Assiniboia; winters south to Texas and the Gulf States.

A bird of more slender form than the preceding, and with a long, graduated tail, the feathers of which are very narrow and pointed. They nest on the ground in damp meadows, but the eggs are difficult to find because the bird is flushed from the nest with great diffiWhite culty. The eggs are white

and are freely specked with brown. Size .70 x .52.

549. SHARP-TAILED SPARROW. Passerherbulus caudacutus.

Range. Breeds in marshes along the Atlantic coast from Maine to South Carolina and winters farther south.

These birds are very common in nearly all the salt marshes of the coast, nesting in the marsh grass. I have nearly always found their nests attached to the coarse marsh grass a few inches above water at high tide, and generally under apiece of drifted seaweed. The nests are made of grasses, and the four or five eggs are whitish, thickly specked with White

reddish brown. Size .75 x .55. The birds are hard to flush and then fly but a few feet and quickly drop into the grass again.

340

Sharp-tailed Sparrow

PERCHING BIRDS

54-9.1. NELSON'S SPARROW. nelsoni nelsoni.

Passerherbulus

Range. Breeds in the fresh water marshes of the Mississippi valley from Illinois to Manitoba.

This species is similar to the Sharp-tailed Finch but more buffy on the breast and generally without streaks. The nesting habits are the same and the eggs indistinguishable.

. ACADIAN SHARP-TAILED SPARROW. Passerherbulus nelsoni subvirgatus.

Range. Breeds in the marshes on the coast of New England and New Brunswick; winters south to the South Atlantic States.

This paler variety of Nelson's Sparrow nests like the Sharp-tailed species and the eggs are the same as those of that bird.

Seaside Sparrow

Dusky Seaside Sparrow

550. SEASIDE SPARROW. Passerherbulus maritimus maritimus.

Range. Atlantic coast, breeding from southern New England to Carolina and wintering farther south.

This sharp-tailed Finch is uniform grayish above and light streaked with dusky, below. They are very abundant in the breeding range, where they nest in marshes in company with caudacutus. Their nests are the same as those of that species and the eggs similar but slightly larger. Size .80 x .60. Data. Smith Island, Va., May 20, 1900. Nest situated in tall grass near shore; made of dried grass and seaweed. Collector, H. W. Bailey. White

All the members of this genus have a habit of fluttering out over the water, and then gliding back to their perch on the grass, on set wings, meanwhile uttering a strange rasping song. The nesting habits and eggs of all the subspecies are precisely like those of this variety, and they all occasionally arch their nests over, leaving an entrance on the side.

550a. SCOTT'S SEASIDE SPARROW. Passerherbulus maritimus peninsulce.

Range. Coasts of Florida and north to South Carolina. Above blackish streaked with brownish gray; below heavily streaked with black.

550b. TEXAS SEASIDE SPARROW. Passerherbulus maritimus sennetti. Range. Coast of Texas. Similar to maritimus, but streaked above.

550c. LOUISIANA SEASIDE SPARROW. Passerherbulus maritimus fisheri.

Range. Gulf coast. This form is similar to peninsulce, but darker and more brownish.

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THE BIRD BOOK

550d. MACGILLIVRAY'S SEASIDE SPARROW.

Passerherbulus maritimus macgillivrai.

Range. Coast of South Carolina. Like fisheri but grayer.

5.11. DUSKY SEASIDE SPARROW. Passerherbulus nigrescens.

Range. Marshes of Indian River near Titusville, Florida.

This species is the darkest of the genus, both above and below, being nearly black on the upperparts. Their habits are like those of the others and the eggs are not likely to differ.

552. LARK SPARROW. Chondestes grammacus grammacus.

Range. Mississippi Valley from the Plains to Illinois and casually farther east, and from Manitoba to Texas; winters in Mexico.

This handsome Sparrow has the sides of the crown and ear ^^^^^ patches chestnut, and the sides of the throat and a spot on the breast, black. They are sweet singers and very welcome birds in their range, where they are quite abundant. Their nests are generally placed on the ground in the midst of or under a clump of weeds or tuft of grass, but sometimes in bushes or even trees; they are made of grasses and weeds and the eggs, which are usually laid in May, are white marked chiefly about the large end with blackish zigzag lines and spots.

White

Size .80 x .60.

552a. WESTERN LARK SPARROW.

Range. United States west of the Plains; breeds from British Columbia to Mexico.

This paler and duller colored variety is common on the Pacific coast; its habits and nests and eggs are like those of the last.

553. HARRIS'S SPARROW.

Zonotrichia querula.

Range. Mississippi Valley, chiefly west, breeding in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the exact range being unknown.

Although the birds are abundant during migrations, they seem to suddenly and strangely disappear during the breeding season. Supposed nests have been found a few inches above the ground in clumps of grass, the eggs Whitish being wh iti s h, thickly spotted with shades of brown. Size .85 x .65.

342

Chondestes grammacus strigatut

Harris's Sparrow

PERCHING BIRDS

554. WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW. Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys.

Range. North America breeding abundantly in Labrador and about Hudson Bay, and casually in northern New England and in western United States in the Rockies and Sierras.

Winters along our Mexican border and southward. A handsome species with a broad white crown bordered on either side by black, and with a white superciliary line and black lores; the underparts are uniform grayish white. These birds appear to be nowhere as common as the White-throated Sparrows with which they associate during migrations and in the breeding grounds. They build on the ground, generally near the edges of woods or in clearings, and lay from four to

six eggs similar but larger, and with as much White-crowned Sparrow

variation in markings as those of the Song Sparrow ; pale greenish blue, spotted and splashed with reddish brown and grayish. Size .90 x .65. Data. Nachook, Labrador, June 10, 1897. Nest of fine grasses on the ground in a clump of grass.

Pale greenish blue

554a. GAMBEI/S SPARROW. Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli.

Range. Rocky Mountains and westward from Mexico to Alaska, breeding chiefly north of the United States.

This bird is like the last but the lores are white. Its nesting habits and eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the former.

Zonotrichia leucophrys

554b. NUTTALL'S SPARROW. nut t alii.

Range. Pacific coast from British Columbia to Lower California.

Similar to the last but smaller and browner above; nests on the ground or in bushes, the eggs not being distinguishable from those of the other White-crowns.

557. GOLDEN-CROWNED SPARROW. Zonotrichia coronata

Range. Pacific coast from Mexico to Alaska, breeding chiefly north of our borders.

This species has the crown yellow, bordered by black on the sides. Their habits are like those of the White-crowned Sparrows, they feeding upon the ground among the dead leaves, and usually being found in flocks and often accompanied by many of the last species. They nest upon the groundor in low bushes, and in May or June lay three or four eggs very similar to the last. Size .90 x .65.

343

Pale greenish blue

CHIPPING SPARROW

PERCHING BIRDS

558. WHITE-THROATED SPARROW. chia albicollis.

Zonotri

White

White-throated Sparrow

Range. North America east of the Plains' and breeding from the northern tier of states! northward; winters from the Middle States; southward.

To my mind this is the most beautiful of Sparrows, with its bright and softly blended plumage and the pure white throat boldly contrasting with its grayish breast and sides of the head; the lores are adorned with a bright yellow spot. They are one of the most abundant of Sparrows in the east during migrations and their musical piping whistle is heard from hedge and wood. They nest most abundantly north of our borders, laying their three or four eggs in grass lined hollows in the ground, or more rarely in nests in bushes. The eggs are white or bluish white, thickly spotted with several shades of brown. Size .85 x .62. They nest most often in thickets or on the edge of swamps, in just such places as they are met with on their migrations.

559. TREE SPARROW. Spizella monticola monticola.

Range. North America east of the Plains, breeding north of the United States to the Arctic coast, east of the Rockies ; winters within the United States.

A larger bird but somewhat resembling the common Chipping Sparrow, but browner above, with a black spot on the breast and no black on the head. They are quite hardy birds and winter in many of the northern states where they may be found in flocks upon the snow, feeding on seeds of protruding weeds. They breed very abundantly in Laborador and about Hudson Bay, placing their green nests in

hollows on the ground or moss; their three or four eggs are greenish white, abundantly speckled all over the surface with reddish brown. Size .80 x .55. Data. Foothills of Black Mountains, McKenzie River, Arctic America, June 13, 1899. Nest on the ground under a tuft of grass on level plain; made of grasses and moss and lined with feathers.

559a. WESTERN TREE SPARROW. Spizella

monticola ochracea.

Range. North America west of the Plains, breeding in Alaska and wintering to Mexico. A paler form of the last, the nesting habits and eggs of which are the same.

560. CHIPPING SPARROW. Spizella pas serina passerina.

Range. North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to the interior of Canada and Newfoundland. 345

THE BlftD BOOK

As indicated by their name socialis, Chipping Sparrows are sociable birds not only with others of the bird tribe, but with man. In all localities that are not overrun with English Sparrows, you will find these confiding birds nesting in trees and shrubs in the yard and in vines from porches,

  1. hile in orchards, nearly every tree has its

tenant. They are smaller birds than the last (5.5 in. long) and have the brown crown bordered by blackish and a black line through the eye. Their nests, which may be found at any height from the ground and in any kind of a tree or shrub, are made of fine grass and weed stems, lined with hair; their three to five eggs are a handsome greenish blue, sparingly specked chiefly about the large end with blackish brown and purplish. Size .70 x .52.

f>60a. WESTERN CHIPPING SPARROW. Spizella passerina arizonce.

Range. Western North America, chiefly west of the ^sSSeoa Rockies, from Mexico to Alaska; winters in Mexico.

This variety is much duller colored than the last and

has but little brown on the back; its nesting habits are the same and the eggs do not appear to differ in any respect from those of the eastern bird.

Bluish white

56l. CLAY-COLORED SPARROW. Spizella pallida.

Range. Interior of United States and Canada, from the Mississippi Valley to

the Rockies, breeding from Iowa and Colorado northward; wipaTefs in Mexico.

These birds can best be described as like the Chipping Sparrow with the brown largely replaced with blackish. They breed quite abundantly in Manitoba and Minnesota, placing their nests on or near the ground, and making them of fine grasses. The eggs cannot be distinguished with certainty from those of the preceding but average a trifle

smaller. Size .65 x .50. Data. Barnsley, Manitoba, May

24, 1900. Nest of grass stalks lined with fine grass, one

foot above ground in tuft of grass.

562. BREWER'S SPARROW. Spizella breweri.

Range. Western United States from Mexico to British Columbia rarely and chiefly between the Rockies and the Sierras; most abundant in New Mexico and Arizona.

This bird is similar to the last but is paler and more finely streaked. Their nesting Bluish white nabits are like those of pallida and the eggs are indistinguishable.

346

561562564

Bluish white

THE BIRD BOOK

563. FIELD SPARROW.

Spizella pusilla pusilla.

Range. North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to southern Manitoba and Quebec; winters in the Gulf States.

These are abundant birds along roadsides, in thickets, or on dry sidehills, where they nest indifferently on the ground or in bushes, making their nests of grass and weed stems. They are the birds, whose high piping song is most frequently heard on hot sultry days in summer. Their eggs. are laid in May or June; they are pale bluish white, speckled and blotched with yellowish brown and grayish purple. Size .65 x .50.

563a. WESTERN FIELD SPARROW. Spizella

Field Sparrow pusilla arenacea.

Range. Great Plains from Mexico to Montana, breeding in the northern half of its range and wintering in the southern.

A paler form of the last, whose general habits and eggs are the same as those of the eastern bird.

564. WORTHEN'S SPARROW. Spizella wortheni.

Range. Southern New Mexico southward through central Mexico.

This pale colored species is the size of the Field Sparrow but has no decided markings anywhere. It is a rare bird within our borders and uncommon anywhere. I am not able to find any material in regard to their eggs.

565. BLACK-CHINNED SPARROW. Spizella atrogularis.

Range. Mexican border of the United States and southward.

This slim-bodied, long-tailed species is grayish with a dusky streaked, reddish brown patch on the back and a black face, chin and throat. Their habits are similar to those of the Field Sparrow and their nests are made near the ground in bushes, but the eggs are plain bluish green, about like unmarked Chipping Sparrows' eggs. Size

Greenish white

.65 x .50.

566. WHITE-WINGED JUNCO. Junco aiJceni.

Range. Breeds in the Black Hills of Dakota and Wyoming; winters in Colorado and casually to Kansas.

This species is like the next but larger and with the wings crossed by two white bars. Its habits are like those of the common Juncos, the nests are placed on the ground, concealed under overhanging rocks or tufts of grass, and the eggs are like those often seen of the Slate-colored Junco; 3 or 4 in number, pinkish white specked and spotted with light reddish brown. Size .75 x .55.

348

White-winged Junco

PERCHING BIRDS

567. SLATE-COLORED JUNCO. Junco hyemaUs hyemalis.

Range. North America east of the Plains,

breeding in the northern tier of states and

northward; winters in southern United States.

This species is slaty gray

on the head, neck, breast,

flanks, back, wings and central tail feathers; the rest of

the underparts are white,

sharply defined against the

gray. They migrate through

the United States in large flocks, usually accompanied by White-throated or Fox Sparrows. They breed very abundantly in the northern parts of their range, frequently in the immediate vicinity of houses but generally on the edges of clearings, etc., placing their nests on the ground and generally partially concealed by rocks, stumps, sods or logs; the nests are made of grasses, lined with hair, and the four or five eggs are white or greenish white, variously speckled with reddish brown either over the entire surface or in a wreath about the large end. Size .80 x .55.

White

Junco hyemalis oreganus. from California to Alaska,

breeding north of the

f>67a. OREGON JUNCO.

Range. Pacific coast United States.

This sub-species is entirely unlike the preceding, having a black head, neck, throat, breast, wings and tail, and brown back; the remainder of the underparts are white, washed with pinkish brown on the sides. The habits and nesting habits of this western Junco are the same as those of the eastern, the birds building in similar localities and making the nests of the same material. There appears to be little, if any, difference between the eggs of the two varieties.

/>67b. SHUFELDT'S JUNCO. Junco hyemalis counectens.

Range. Pacific coast breeding from Oregon to British Columbia and wintering south to the Mexican boundary.

Said to be slightly larger and duller colored than the Oregon Junco; eggs the same.

567c. THURBER'S JUNCO. Junco hyemalis thurberi.

Range. The Sierra Nevadas from Oregon to southern California.

Similar to oreganus but paler and back more pinkish; eggs will not differ.

567d. POINT PINOS JUNCO. Junco hyemalis pinosus.

Range. A very locally confined variety breeding in pine woods of southwestern California, about Monterey and Santa Cruz.

Similar to tnurberi with the head and neck slaty instead of black.

349

THE BIRD BOOK

567e. CAROLINA JUNCO. Junco hyemalis carolinensis. ' Range. Alleghanies in Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia.

A slightly larger bird than the Slate-colored Junco and with the bill horn color instead of pinkish white. They have been found to breed very abundantly in the higher ranges of the Carolinas, nesting under banks, in tufts of grass, or occasionally in small bushes, in fact in such locations as are used by liyemalis. Their eggs which are laid during May, June or July (probably two broods being raised) are similar to those of the Slate-colored species but slightly larger.

56?f. MONTANA JUNCO. Junco hyemalis montanus.

Range. Prom northern Idaho and Montana north to Alberta; winters south to Mexico.

This variety is like mearnsi but darker on the head and throat and with less pink on the sides. Its nesting habits and eggs do not differ from those of the Pink-sided Junco.

567g- PINK-SIDED JUNCO. Junco hyemalis mearnsi.

Range. Breeds in mountains of Idaho, Wyoming and Montana and winters south to Mexico.

This species has the head and breast gray, the back brownish and the sides pinkish brown. They breed at high altitudes in the ranges, placing their nests of grasses under sods or overhanging rocks; their eggs are pinkish white before being blown and are spotted over the whole surface but more heavily at the large end with pale reddish brown and gray. Size .80x.60. White

570. ARIZONA JUNCO. Junco phceonotus palliatus.

Range. Mountains of western Mexico north to southern Arizona.

Similar to the preceding species but upper mandible blackish and the gray on throat shading insensibly into the grayish white underparts. They are quite abundant in the higher ranges of southern Arizona, where they breed, placing their nests on the ground in similar locations to those chosen by other Juncos ; the three or four eggs are greenish white, finely speckled chiefly about the large end with reddish brown. Sixe .76 x .60.

,5708. RED-BACKED JUNCO. Junco phceonotus dorsalis.

Rang. Breeds in the mountains of New Mexico and Arizona and southward. This variety is like the last but the reddish brown on the back does not extend to the coverts or wings. The nesting habits are like those of the last but the eggs are only minutely specked about the large end.

570b. GRAY-HEADED JUNCO. Junco pJiceouotus caniceps.

Range. Rocky Mountain region from Wyoming south to Mexico.

This species is similar to the Slate-colored Junco but has a reddish brown patch on the back. They nest on the ground in mountainous regions, concealing the nests in tufts of grass or under logs, stones, etc. The eggs are creamy or bluish white, specked over the whole surface, but most numerously about the larger end with reddish brown. Size .75 x .60. Data. Custer Co., Colo., June 4, 1897. Slight nest of small rootlets and fine grass placed under a tuft of grass. Altitude over 8,000 feet.

350

White

PERCHING BIRDS

571. BAIRD'S JUNCO. Junco bairdi.

Range. Southern Lower California.

This gray headed species with rusty back and sides is locally confined to the southern parts of the California peninsula where it is resident. Its eggs are not likely to differ from those of the Pink-sided Junco which it most nearly resembles.

56?i. TOWNSEND'S JUNCO. townsendi.

Junco hy emails

Range. Mountains of northern Lower California; resident and breeding. Similar to the Pink-sided Junco but duller colored; eggs probably the same.

572. QUADALUPE JUNCO. Junco insularis.

Black-throated Sparrow

Resembles the Pink-sided Junco but is smaller, darker and duller colored. They are common on the island where they nest in the pine groves, laying their first sets in February or March. The nests are like those of the genus and the eggs are greenish white, finely dotted with reddish brown at the large end. Size .77 x .60.

573. BLACK-THROATED SPARROW, ^mphupisa bilineata bilineata.

Range. Breeds from central Texas to Kansas; winters in southern Texas and Mexico.

This species is grayish brown above, with black throat, white superciliary and line on side of throat. This is a common species that nests on the ground or at low elevations in bushes, making their nests of weed stems and grasses. The three to five eggs are bluish white, unmarked and similar to those of the

Bluebird but smaller. Size .72 x .55. Bluish white

573a. DESERT SPARROW. Amphispiza bilineata deserticola.

Range. Southwestern United States from western Texas to southern California, and north, to Colorado and Nevada; winters in Mexico.

Like the last but paler above. An abundant bird among the foothills and on plains throughout its range. Found generally in sage brush and thickets where it nests in bushes or on the ground laying three or four bluish white eggs like those of the last.

57k BELL'S SPARROW. Amphispiza belli.

Range. Southern half of California and southward.

These grayish, black and white birds are abundant in sage brush and thickets, nesting on the ground or at low elevations in bushes, and during May or June, laying from three to four eggs of a pale greenish white color, spotted and blotched with reddish brown and purplish. Size .75 x .60.

351

Amphispiza nevadensis neva

THE BIRD BOOK

574.1. SAGE SPARROW. densis.

Range. Sage deserts of the Great Basin from Oregon and Montana, south to Mexico.

This sub-species is abundant throughout its range where it nests near or on the ground, in or under bushes and generally concealed from view. The nests are made of grass and sage bark lined with fine grass ; the eggs are like those of the last species, greenish white, spotted and blotched with shades of brown and purplish.

574. la. GRAY SAGE SPARROW. Amphispiza nevadensis cinerea.

Range. A smaller and paler variety found in Lower California.

The nests and eggs of this pale variety probably do not differ in any respect from those of the better known varie.ties.

575. PINE-WOODS SPARROW. Peuccea cestivalis cestivalis.

Range. Florida and southern Georgia. These birds are common in restricted localities in their range, nesting on the ground under bushes or shrubs; the nests are made of grasses and the four or five eggs are pure white with a slight gloss. Size .75 x .60. The birds are said to be fine singers and to frequent, almost exclusively, pine barrens.

575a. BACHMAN'S SPARROW. Peuccea cestivalis bachmani.

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States; north to Indiana and Illinois.

This variety is common in most localities in its range, frequenting pine woods and barrens chiefly, and nesting on the ground in May or June. Their nests are made of grasses and lined with very fine grass, and have the tops completely arched over leaving a small entrance on the side. The eggs are pure white with a slight gloss and measure .75 x .60.

White

576. BOTTERI'S SPARROW. Peuccea botterii.

Range. Mexican plateau north to southern Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.

They nest in abundance in tall grass in the lowlands of their range, the nests being difficult to find because the bird flushes with great difficulty. The nests are on the ground, made of grass, and the three to five eggs are pure white, measuring .75 x .60.

352

PERCHING BIRDS

578. CASSIN'S SPARROWS Peuccea cassini.

Range. Plains and valleys from Texas and Arizona north to Kansas and Nevada.

These birds breed in numbers on the arid plains, placing their grass nests on the ground at the foot of small bushes or concealed in tufts of grass, and during 'ajjtt May lay four pure white eggs which are of the same size and indistinguishable from those of others of the genus. White

579- RUFOUS-WINGED SPARROW. Aimophila carpalis.

Range. Plains of western Mexico and north to southern Arizona.

This pale colored bird bears a remote resemblance to the Tree Sparrow. They nest commonly in dry arid regions, plac- / ing their nests at low elevations in / bushes or cacti, preferably young mesquites, and making them of coarse grass lined with finer. Two broods are raised a season and from May to August sets of four or five plain bluish white eggs may be found. Size

580. RUFOUS-CROWNED SPARROW. Aimophila ruficeps ruficeps.

Range. Local in southern half of California and in Lower California.

A brownish colored species both above and below, which is found on mountains and hillsides in restricted localities. They nest on the ground placing their grass structures in hollows, usually at the foot of a small bush or shrub and well concealed. They lay from three to five pale bluish white eggs. Size .SOx.60.

580a. SCOTT'S SPARROW. Aimophila ruficeps scotti.

Range. Western Texas, New Mexico and Arizona south in Mexico.

A paler species, above, than the last, and whitish below. It is quite a common species on the mountain ranges where it nests on the ground, in clumps of grass or beneath shrubs or overhanging rocks; the nests are made of grasses and weeds scantily put together. The eggs are white, untinted. Size .80 x .60.

580b. ROCK SPARROW. Aimophila ruficeps eremceca.

Range. Middle and southern Texas and south in Mexico.

This variety frequents rocky mountain sides where it nests abundantly under rocks or at the foot of shrubs, the nests being made of coarse grasses loosely twisted together and lined with finer grass. The birds are shy and skulk off through the underbrush upon the approach of anyone so that the nests are quite difficult to find. The three to five eggs are pure white and of the same size as those of the last.

580c. LAGUNA SPARROW. Aimophila ruficeps sororia.

Range. Mountains of southern Lower California.

The nests and eggs of this very similar variety to nt//re/>.v proper are not likely to differ in any particular from those of that species.

353

23

THE BIRD BOOK

581.

SONG SPARROW. melodia.

Melospiza melodia

Range. North America, east of the Plains, breeding from Virginia to Manitoba and New Brunswick, and wintering chiefly in the southern half of the United States.

A favorite and one of the most abundant in all sections of the east. They are sweet and persistent songsters and frequent side hills, pastures, roadsides, gardens and dooryards if English Sparrows be not present. They nest indifferently upon the ground or in bushes, generally artfully concealing the nest by drooping leaves; it is made of grass and weed stems, lined with fine grass or, occasionally, horse hair. As is usual in the case of birds that abound about habitations they frequently choose odd nesting sites. They lay two and

White

Song- Sparrow

sometimes three sets of eggs a season, from May to August, the eggs being three to five in number and white or greenish white, marked, spotted, blotched or splashed in endless variety of pattern and intensity, with many shades of brown; some eggs are very heavily blotched so as to wholly obscure the ground color while others are specked very sparingly. They measure .80 x .60 with great variations. 581a. DESERT SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia fallax.

Range. Desert regions of southern Nevada, Arizona and southeastern California. The eggs of this very pale form are the same as those of the last. 58 Ib. MOUNTAIN SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia montana.

Range. Rockies and the Great Basin from Oregon and Montana southward.

This variety is paler than the Song Sparrow but darker than fall ax. Eggs the same.

58 Ic. HEERMAN'S SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia heermanni.

Range. California, west of the Sierra Nevadas.

Similar to melodia but with less brown and the markings blacker and more distinct. The nesting habits are the same and the eggs similar to large dark specimens of the eastern Song Sparrow. Size .85 x .62.

58 Id. SAMUELS SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia samuelis.

Range. Coast regions of California, chiefly in the marshes.

Similar to the last but smaller. They nest on the ground in marsh grass, usually in sandy districts along the shore. The eggs average smaller than those of melodia. Size .78 x .58.

58 le. RUSTY SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia

morphna.

Range. Pacific coast of Oregon and British Columbia. A dark species with the upper parts dark reddish brown and heavily streaked with the same below. The nesting habits and eggs are like those of melodia.

354

PERCHING BIRDS

581 f. SOOTY SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia rufina.

Range. Pacific coast from British Columbia to Alaska.

A darker bird, both above and below, even than the last. Eggs like the last but averaging a trifle larger. Size .82 x .62.

58 Ig. BROWN'S SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia rivularis.

Range. Southern Lower California.

A light colored form like the Desert Song Sparrow; said to build in cat tails above water as well as on the ground; eggs not different from others of the genus.

58 Ih. SANTA BARBARA SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia graminea. Range. Breeds on Santa Barbara Islands; winters on adjacent coast of California.

A variety of the same size but paler than samuelis. Nesting or eggs not peculiar.

58 li. SAN CLEMENTE SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia clementce.

Range. San Clemente and Santa Rosa Island of the Santa Barbara group. Slightly larger than the last; habits and eggs the same.

581 j. DAKOTA SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia juddi.

Range. North Dakota, breeding in the Turtle Mountains.

Practically indistinguishable from the common Song Sparrow; the eggs will not differ.

581k. MERRILL'S SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia merrillL

Range. Northwestern United States; eastern Oregon and Washington to

Idaho.

Very similar to, but lighter than the Rusty Song Sparrow.

5811. ALAMEDA SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia pusillula Range. Salt marshes of San Francisco Bay, California. Similar to, but still smaller than Samuel Song Sparrow. Eggs will not differ.

581m. SAN DIEGO SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia cooperi. Range. Southern coast of California; north to Monterey Bay. Similar to, but smaller and lighter than heermanni.

581 n. YAKUTAT SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia caurina.

Range. Coast of Alaska from Cross Sound to Prince Williams Sound.

Similar to the Sooty Song Sparrow but larger and grayer. Eggs probably average larger.

58 lo. KENAI SONG SPARROW. Melospiza Melodia kenaiensis. Range. Kenai Jeninsula on the coasts. Like the last but still larger; length about 7 inches.

58 Iq. BISCHOFF'S SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia insignis. Range. Kadiak Island, Alaska. Similar to and nearly^s large as the next species, but browner.

58 Ir. ALEUTIAN SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia sanaka.

Range. Found on nearly all the islands of the Aleutian group, excluding Kadiak.

This is the largest of the Song Sparrows being nearly 8 inches in length; it is similar in appearance to the Sooty Song Sparrow but grayer. It nests either on the ground or at low elevations in bushes, the nest usually being concealed in a tuft of grass or often placed under rocks or, sometimes, driftwood along the shores. The nests are made of grasses and weed stems, and the eggs are similar to those of the Song Sparrow but much larger and more elongate. Size .90 x .65. Greenish white

355

THE BIRD BOOK

Lincoln's Sparrow

583. LINCOLN'S SPARROW. Melospiza lincolni lincolni.

Range. North America, breeding from northern United States north to the Arctic regions; most abundant in the interior and the west; rare in New England.

This bird is shy and retiring and skulks off through the underbrush of thickets and swamps that it frequents upon the approach of anyone; consequently it is often little known in localities where it is quite abundant. They nest on the ground like Song Sparrows, and rarely in bushes. Their eggs are very similar to those of the Song Sparrow, three or four in number, greenish white in color, heavily spotted and blotched with chestnut and gray. Size .SO x .58.

Greenish white

alto ,

583a. FORBUSH'S SPARROW. Melospiza lincolni striata.

Range. Pacific coast of Oregon and British Columbia.

Similar to the preceding but darker and browner. Eggs probably like those of the last.

584. SWAMP SPARROW. Melospiza georgiana.

Range. North America, east of the Plains, breeding from middle United States north to Labrador and Hudson Bay.

This common and dark colored Sparrow frequents swampy places where it breeds; owing to its sly habits it is not commonly seen during the breeding season. Its nests are made of grasses and located on the ground usually in places where the walking is extremely treacherous. The eggs are similar to those of the Song Sparrow but are generally Greenish darker and more clouded and average smaller. Size .75 x .55.

585. Fox SPARROW. Passerella iliaca iliaca.

Range. Eastern North America, breeding r~ from southern Canada northward, and northwest to Alaska; winters in southern United States.

This large handsome species, with its mottled grayish and reddish brown plumage and bright rufous tail, is very common in eastern United States during migrations, being found in open woods and hedges in company with Juncos and White-throated Sparrows, with which species their song vies in sweetness. They nest usually on the ground, but sometimes in low bushes ; the nests are made of grasses and Greenish are concealed beneath the overhanging branches of bushes or evergreens. The three or four eggs are greenish-white, spotted and blotched with brown. Size .94 x .68.

356

Swamp Sparrow

PERCHING BIRDS

Passerella - .

585a. SHUMAGIN Fox SPARROW. iliaca unalaschensis.

Range. Shumagin Islands and the Alaska coast to Cook Inlet.

Similar to the last but paler, being one of the several recent unsatisfactory subdivisions of this genus. The nesting habits and eggs of all the varieties are like those of the common eastern form.

585b. THICK-BILLED SPARROW. Passerella iliaca megarhyncha.

Range. Mountains of eastern California and western Nevada; locally confined.

Entire upper parts and breast spots gray; wings and tail brown. It nests in the heaviest underbrush of the mountain sides, building on or close to the ground.

585c. SLATE-COLORED SPARROW. Passerella iliaca schistacea.

Fox Sparrow

Range. Rocky Mountain region, breeding from Colorado to British Columbia.

This variety which is similar to, but smaller than the last, nests in thickets along the mountain streams. The eggs are like those of iliaca, but average smaller.

585d. STEPHEN'S SPARROW. Passerella iliaca stephensi.

Range. Breeds in the San Bernadino and San Jacinto Mts. in southern Call fornia.

Like the Thick-billed Sparrow, but bill still larger and bird slightly so.

585e. SOOTY Fox SPARROW. Passerella iliaca fuliginosa.

Range. Coast of Washington and British Columbia; south to California in winter.

585f. KADIAK Fox SPARROW. Passerella iliaca insularis.

Range. Breeding on Kadiak Island; winters south to California. Like the last but browner above and below.

585g. TOWNSEND'S Fox SPARROW. Passerella iliaca townsendi.

Range. Southern coast of Alaska; winters south to California. Like the last but more rufous above.

Upperparts and tail uniform brownish umber, below heavily spotted.

586. TEXAS SPARROW. Arremonops rufivirgatus.

Range. Eastern Mexico and southern Texas.

This odd species has a brownish crown, olive greenish upperparts, wings and tail, and grayish white underparts. They are common resident birds along the Lower Rio Grande, being found in tangled thickets, where they nest at low elevations, making their A quite bulky nests of coarse weeds and grass and sometimes . twigs, lined with finer grass and hair; they are often partially domed with an entrance on the side. Their eggs are plain white, without markings; often several broods are raised in a season and eggs may be found from May until August. White

357

THE BIRD BOOK

587- TOWHEE. Pipilo erythrophthalmus erythrophthalmus.

Range. North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to Manitoba.

The well known Towhee, Ground Robin or Chewink is a bird commonly met with in eastern United States; it frequents thickets, swamps and open woods where they nest generally upon the ground and sometimes in bushes near the ground. The nests are well made of grasses, lined with fine grasses and rootlets, and the eggs, which are laid in May or June, are pinkish white, generally finely sprinkled but sometimes with bold markings of light reddish brown, with great variations. Size .90 x .70. Towhees are noisy birds and at frequent intervals, while they are scratching among the leaves for their food they will stop and utter their familiar "tow-hee" or "chewink" and then again will mount to the summit of a tree or bush and sing their sweet refrain for a long time.

Purplish white

Towhee or Chewink

587a. WHITE-EYED TOWHEE. Pipilo erythrophthalmus alleni.

Range. Florida and the Atlantic coast to South Carolina.

This variety is like the preceding except that the eyes are white instead of red. There is no difference between their nesting habits and eggs, except that they much more frequently, and in some localities, almost always, nest in trees.

588. ARCTIC TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus arcticus.

Range. Great Plains, breeding from northern United States to the Saskatchewan.

This species is similar to the eastern Towhee but has the scapulars and coverts tipped with white. They nest abundantly in suitable localities in Montana and North Dakota and more com- ^Sfifi^fe^ monly north of our borders. Like the eastern Towhee, they nest on the ground under the protection of overhanging bushes, the nests being made of strips of bark and grasses and lined with fine rootlets. Their three or four eggs, which are laid during May, June or July, are pinkish white, profusely speckled with reddish brown; very similar to those of the eastern Towhee. Size .92 x .70.

Pinkish white

588a. SPURRED TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus montanus.

Range. Breeds from Mexico to British Columbia, west of the Rockies.

Similar to the last but with less white on the back. The nesting habits and eggs are like those of the Towhee, but in some localities the nests are most often found in bushes above the ground.

358

C. A. Reed

NEST AND EGGS OF TOWBEE

T

588b 591

588b. OREGON TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus oregonus.

Range. Pacific coast from California to British Columbia; winters to Mexico. Similar to the last but with still fewer white markings on the back and the chestnut flanks brighter. The nesting habits and eggs of this variety differ in no essential particular from those of the preceding Towhees.

588c. SAN CLEMENTE TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus clementce.

Range. San Clemente Is. and other of the Santa Barbara group.

Black of male said to be duller. Probably no difference between the eggs and others.

588d. SAN DIEGO TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus megalonyx.

Range. Coast of southern California and Lower California. Said to be darker than mecjalonyx.

588e. LARGE-BILLED TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus magnirostris.

Range. Southern Lower California. Similar to arcticus ; bill said to be larger.

589- GUADALUPE TOWHEE. Pipilo consobrinus.

Range. Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

Similar to oregonus but smaller and with a relatively shorter tail. The nesting habits and eggs of this species will not likely be found to differ essentially from those of others of the genus.

591. CANON TOWHEE. Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus.

Range. Mexico and north to Arizona and New Mexico and casually farther to Colorado.

A common species in the valleys and on the side hills, nesting in bushes near the ground, and sometimes on the ground; the nests are made of grasses, weeds and twigs lined with rootlets, and the three or four eggs are greenish blue sparingly spotted or scrawled with blackish brown, the markings being similar to those on many Red-winged Blackbirds' eggs. Size 1.00 x .70. Greenish blue

59 la. SAN LUCAS TOWHEE. Pipilo fuscus albigula.

Range. Southern Lower California.

This variety is like the last but is usually paler below. It is abundant in the region about the cape where they nest in thickets, either in the bushes or on the ground. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the Canon Towhee.

59 lb. CALIFORNIA TOWHEE. Pipilo crissalis crissalis.

Range. Pacific coast of California.

This variety is similar to the Canon Towhee but is browner, both above and below. They are one of the most common of California birds, frequenting scrubby thickets, both on mountain sides and in valleys and canons, from which their harsh scolding voice always greets intruders. They place their nests in bushes at low elevations from the ground and sometimes on the ground ;

360

PERCH

they are made of twigs, strips of bark, weeds and coarse grasses, lined with fine rootlets. Their three or four eggs are laid in April or May; they are light bluish green marked like the others with purplish or brownish black. Size .95x.72.

5.9 1.1 a. ANTHONY'S TOWHEE. Pipilo crissalis senicula.

Range. Southern California and south through Lower California.

A very similar bird to the last but sightly smaller and lighter below. The habits and nesting habits of these birds are in every way identical with those of the California Towhee and the eggs cannot be distinguished from those of that variety. They are fully as abundant in the southern parts of California as the others are in the northern.

BIRDS

Greenish blue

591.3 592 5!J2.1

592. ABERT'S TOWHEE. Pipilo aberti.

Range. Arizona and New Mexico north to Colorado and Nevada and east to southeastern California.

This bird is wholly brownish gray both above and below

PP** shading into reddish brown on the under tail coverts; the

face is black. They are abundant in the valleys of Arizona and New Mexico, but unlike the preceding species, they are generally wild and shy. They nest in chaparral thickets along streams, the nests being constructed similarly to those of the California Towhee, and the eggs are not easily distinguishable from those of that species, but they are usually more sparsely specked and the markings more dis Greenish blue tinct. Size 1.00 x .75.

592.1. GREEN-TAILED TOWHEE. Oreospiza Morura.

Range. Western United States, chiefly west of the Rockies from Montana and Washington south to Mexico; wintering in southwestern United States.

This handsome and entirely different plumaged species from any of the preceding would, from appearance, be better placed in the group with the White-throated Sparrow than its present position. It has a reddish brown crown, the remainder of the upper parts, wings and tail being greenish yellow; the throat is white, bordered abruptly with gray on the breast and sides of head. These birds place their nests on the ground. The nests are built similarly to those of the eastern Towhee, and the eggs, too, are similar, being whitish, finely dotted and specked with reddish brown, the markings being most numerous around the larger end. Size .85 x .65.

mj^jjfr.

Whitish

Green -tailed Towhee

361

CARDINAL

PERCHING BIRDS

593. CARDINAL. Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis.

Range. Eastern United States, north to New York and Illinois, west to the Plains and Texas. Resident in most of its range.

These beautiful fiery red and crested songsters are one of the most attractive of our birds, and in their range, nest about habitations as freely as among the thickets and scrubby brush of wood or hillside. Their nests are rarely placed higher than ten feet from the ground in bushes, branches, vines, brush piles or trees; they are loosely made of twigs, coarse grasses and weeds, shreds of bark, leaves, etc., and lined with fine grass or hair. They frequently lay two or three sets of eggs a season, the first being completed usually early in May; three or four, and sometimes five, white or pale bluish white eggs are laid; they are very varied in markings but usually profusely spotted, more heavily at the large end, with reddish brown and lavender. Size 1.00 x .70.

Bluish white

ARIZONA CARDINAL. Cardinalis cardinalis superbus. Range. Northwestern Mexico and southern Arizona. A larger and more rosy form of the Cardinal. Its eggs tinguished from those of the eastern Redbird.

cannot be dis

593b. SAN LUCAS CARDINAL. Cardinalis cardinalis igneus. Range. Southern Lower California. Like the last but smaller and with less black on the forehead; eggs the same.

OF CA11DINAJ

363

THE BIRD BOOK

mm

5p3c. GRAY-TAILED CARDINAL. cardinalis canicaudus.

Cardinalis

Cardinal

Range. Northeastern Mexico and southern Texas.

The male of this species is like the eastern Cardinal but the female is said to be grayer. The nesting habits are the same and the eggs identical with those of the latter.

593d. FLORIDA CARDINAL. Cardinalis cardinalis floridanus.

Range. Southern Florida. Supposed to be a deeper and richer shade oi red. Eggs like those of cardinalis.

594. ARIZONA PYRRHULOXIA. Pyrrhuloxia sinuata sinuata.

. Range. Northwestern Mexico and the southern border of New Mexico, Arizona and western Texas.

This species is of similar form and crested like a Cardinal, but the bill is very short and hooked like that of a Parrot ; the plumage is grayish, with wings and tail dull reddish; face and throat, and middle of belly rosy red. Their habits are the same as those of the Cardinal, but their nests are said to be slighter; they are placed in similar locations to those of the latter, the two species often nesting together in the same thicket. Their eggs are like those of the Cardinal but average smaller, although the ranges overlap so that the eggs cannot be distinguished. Size .90 x .70. Data. San Antonio, Texas, May 16, 1889. Nest of fine grasses, lined with rootlets ; 4 feet from ground in a mesquite tree.

5Q4a. TEXAS PYRRHULOXIA. Pyrrhuloxia sinuata texana.

Range. Northeastern Mexico and southern Texas.

Said to be grayer and the bill to average larger than that of the last. There are no differences in the nesting habits or eggs between the two varieties.

594b. SAN LUCAS PYRRHULOXIA. Pyrrhuloxia sinuata peninsula.

Range. Southern Lower California.

Smaller than the Arizona Cardinal but with a larger bill. The eggs are like those of the others but may average a trifle smaller. Texas Pyrrhuloxia

364

Bluish white

PERCHING BIRDS

595. ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK. ludoviciana.

Zamelodia

Greenish blue

Range. United States, east of the Plains, breeding from the Middle States and Ohio north to Manitoba and Nova Scotia.

This beautiful black and white bird with rosy red breast and under wing coverts, is one of the most

pleasing of our songsters. They nest either in bushes or trees, generally between six and twenty feet from the ground and usually in thick clumps of trees or scrubby apple trees. The three or four eggs, which are laid in June, are greenish blue, spotted, most heavily about the larger end, with reddish brown. Size 1.00 x .75. Data. Worcester, Mass., June 5, 1899. Nest of twigs and rootlets in small apple tree in woods ; nest very frail, eggs showing through the bottom.

5.96'.. .BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK. Zamelodia melanocephala.

Range. United States, west of the Plains, breeding from Mexico north to British Columbia ; w i ri ters south of the Pale greenish white United states<

This species is of the size of the last (8 inches long), and is a bright cinnamon brown color with black head, and black and white wings and tail. The habits of this bird are the same as those of the Rosebreasted Grosbeak and its song is very similar but more lengthy. Their nests, like those of the last, are very flimsy structures placed in bushes or trees, usually below twenty feet from the ground; they are open frameworks of twigs, rootlets and weed stalks, through which the eggs can be plainly seen. The eggs are similar to those of the preceding but are usually of a paler color, the markings, therefore showing with greater distinctness. Size 1.00 x .70.

Rose-breasted Grosbeak

J. B. Pardoe. NEST OP ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK.

365

THE BIRD BOOK

Bluish white

597. BLUE GROSBEAK. Guiraca ccerulea.

Range. Southeastern United States, breeding from the Gulf north to Pennsylvania and Illinois, and casually to New England.

Smaller than the last two species and deep blue, with wings and tail blackish, and the lesser coverts and tips of greater, chestnut. It is a fairly common species in the southerly parts of its range, nesting most frequently in low bushes or vines in thickets; the nest is made of rootlets, weed stalks and grasses and sometimes leaves. The three or four eggs are bluish white, unmarked. Size .85 x .65. Data. Chatham Co., Ga., June 10, 1898. 3 eggs. Nest of roots, leaves and snake skin, lined with fine rootlets, 3 feet from the ground in a small oak bush.

Blue Grosbeak

If ^

597a. WESTERN BLUE GROSBEAK. Guiraca ccerulea lazula.

Range. Western United States north to Kansas, Colorado and northern California.

Slightly larger than the last and lighter blue; nests the same and egg not distinctive.

598. INDIGO BUNTING. Passerina cyanea.

Range. United States, east of the Plains, breeding north to Manitoba and

Nova Scotia; winters south of the United States. This handsome species is rich indigo on the

head and neck, shading into blue or greenish

blue on the upper and under parts. They are

very abundant in some localities along roadsides, in thickets and open woods, where their song is frequently head, it being a very sweet refrain resembling, somewhat, certatin passages from that of the Goldfinch. They nest at low elevations in thickets or vines, building their home of grass and weeds, lined with

fine grass or hair, it being quite a substantial

structure. The eggs, which are laid in June

or July, are pale bluish white. Size .75 x .52.

599. LAZULI BUNTING. Passerina amcena.

Range. Western United States, breeding from Mexico to northern United States and the interior of British Columbia; east to Kansas.

This handsome bird is of the size of cyaneu, but is azure blue above and on the throat, the indigo Bunting:

366

Pale bluish white

PERCHING BIRDS

breast being browish and the rest of the underparts, white. It is the western representative of the Indigo Bunting, and its habits and nesting habits are in all respects the same as I those of that species, the nests being made of twigs, grasses, strips of bark, weeds, leaves, etc. The eggs are like those of the last, pale bluish white. Size .75 x .55.

Pale bluish vhite

..

Pale bluish white

600. VARIED BUNTING. Passerina

versicolor

Range. Mexico and north to southern Texas.

The general color of this odd bird is purplish, changing to bright blue on the crown and ^^'^^ rump, and with a reddish

nape. They are quite abundant in some localities along the Lower Rio Grande, where they nest in bushes and tangled under bru&h, the nests being like those of the last species, and rarely above five feet from the ground. The eggs are pale bluish white, three or four in number, and laid during May or June. Size .75 x .55.

600a. BEAUTIFUL BUNTING. Passerina versicolor pulchra. Range. Southern Lower California. Slightly smaller but very similar to the last; eggs will not differ.

601. PAINTED BUNTING. Passerina ciris.

Lazuli Bunting

Range. South Atlantic and

Varied Bunting

ciris.

Gulf States; north to Illinois in the interior. Without exception, this is the most gaudily attired of North American birds, the whole underparts being red, the head and neck deep blue, the back yellowish green, and the rump purple, the line of demarcation between the colors being sharp. They are frequently kept as cage birds but more for their bright colors than any musical ability, their song being of the character of the Indigo Bunting, but weaker and less musical. They are very abundant in the South Atlantic and Gulf States, where they nest usually in bushes or hedges at low elevations, but occasionally on branches of tall trees. Their nests are made of weeds, shreds of bark, grasses, etc., lined with fine grass, very much resembling white

that of the Indigo. Their eggs are laid in May, June or July, they frequently raising two broods; they are white or pale bluish white, speckled with reddish brown. Size .75 x .55. 367

THE BIRD BOOK

Painted Bunting

602. SHARPE'S SEED-EATER. Sporophila morelleti morelleti

Range. Eastern Mexico, breeding north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.

This peculiar, diminutive Finch is but 4.5 inches in length, and in plumage is black, white and gray. In restricted localities in southern Texas, they are not uncommon during the summer months. They build in bushes or young trees at low elevations making their nests of fine grasses or fibres, firmly woven together and usually placed in an upright crotch. The eggs are pale greenish blue, plentifully speckled with reddish and umber brown, and some markings of lilac. Size .65 x .45. Data. Brownsville, Texas, May 7, 1892. Greenish blue Nest of fine fibre-like material lined with horse hairs, on limb of small tree in open woods near a lake of fresh water; 6 feet above ground. Collector, Frank B. Armstrong. This set is in the collection of Mr. C. W. Crandall.

[603.] GRASSQUIT. Tiaris bicolor.

Range. This small Finch is a Cuban species which casually strays to southern Florida.

They are abundant on the island, building large arched nests of grass, with a small entrance on the side. They lay from three to six white eggs, specked with brown. Size .65 x .50.

[603.1] MELODIOUS GRASSQUIT. Tiaris canora.

Another Cuban Finch which has been taken in the Florida Keys. Eggs like the last.

604<. DICKCISSEL. Spiza americana.

Range. Interior of the United States, breeding from the Gulf to northern United States, west to the Rockies, east to the Alleghanies.

A sparrow-like Bunting with a yellow breast patch, line over eye and on side of throat; throat black, chin white and wing coverts chestnut. These sleek-coated, harmoniously colored birds are very common in dry bush-grown pastures and on the prairies. ^rtf^-r- They are very persistent

/? ^^ singers, and their song, while

Ji -;*;, very simple, is welcome on

\>y fill*' hot days when other birds

pr are quiet. They nest anywhere, as suits their fancy, Bluish white on the ground, in clumps of grass, in clover fields, bushes, low trees, or in thistles. The nests are made of weeds, grasses, leaves and rootlets, lined with fine grass, and the three to five eggs are bluish white. Size .80 x .60.

368

Sharpe's Seed-eater

PERCHING BIRDS

605. LARK BUNTING. Calamospiza melanocorys..

Range. A bird of the Plains, abundant from western Kansas to eastern Colorado and north to the Canadian border; winters in Mexico.

These black and white birds have a sweet song which they often utter while on the wing after the manner of the Bobolink, all their habits being similar to those of this bird, except that this species likes the broad dry prairies where it nests on the ground under the protection of a tuft of grass or a low bush. Their four or five eggs are like those of the last but slightly larger. Size .85 x .65. Data. Franklin Co., Kansas. 4 eggs. Nest in cornfield in a hollow on the ground at the base of a stalk; made of straw and weeds.

Bluish white

Dickcisf